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Late Quaternary prehistoric birds

Birds Guide

Late Quaternary prehistoric birds

Paleornithology | Fossil birds

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Prehistoric birds are various taxa of birds that became extinct before recorded history, or more precisely, before they could be studied alive by bird scientists. They are known from subfossil remains and sometimes folk memory, as in the case of New Zealand's Haast Eagle.
Artist's rendition of a giant Haast's eagle attacking New Zealand moa.
Artist's rendition of a giant Haast's eagle attacking New Zealand moa.

Birds (Aves) are generally believed to have evolved from feathered dinosaurs, and there is no real dividing line between birds and dinosaurs except of course that the former survived the Cretaceous-Tertiary extinction event and the latter did not. For the purposes of this article, a "bird" is considered to be any member of the clade Neornithes, that is the bird lineage as exists today. The other lineages of the Aves also became extinct at the end of the Cretaceous.

Taxon extinctions taking place before the Late Quaternary happened in the absence of significant human interference. Rather, reasons for extinction are stochastic abiotic events such as bolide impacts, climate changes, mass volcanic eruptions etc. Alternatively, species may have gone extinct due to evolutionary displacement by successor or competitor taxa - it is notable for example that in the early Neogene, seabird biodiversity was much higher than today; this is probably due to competition by the radiation of marine mammals after that time. The relationships of these ancient birdsre often hard to determine, as many are known only from very fragmentary remains and due to the complete fossilization precludes analysis of information from DNA, RNA or protein sequencing.

For further discussion, see main article Fossil birds

Contents

Late Quaternary avian extinctions

This page lists bird taxa that have been become extinct before they could be researched by science, but nonetheless survived into (geologically) recent times. Their remains are not or not completely fossilized and therefore may yield organic material for molecular analyses to provide additional clues for resolving their taxonomic affiliations. As these species' extinction coincided with the expansion of Homo sapiens across the globe, in most (but not necessary all) cases, anthropogenic factors have played a crucial part in their extinction, be it through hunting, introduced predators or habitat alteration. It is notable that a large proportion of the species are from oceanic islands, especially in Polynesia. Bird taxa that evolved on oceanic islands are usually very vulnerable to hunting or predation by rats, cats, dogs or pigs - animals commonly introduced by humans -, as there evolved in the absence of mammalian predators and therefore only have rudimentary predator avoidance behavior. Many, especially rails, have additionally become flightless for the same reason and thus presented even easier prey.

The taxa in this list became extinct during the Late Quaternary - the Holocene or Late Pleistocene -, but before the period of global scientific exploration that started in the late 15th century. More precisely, their extinction was coincident with the expansion of Homo sapiens beyond Africa and Eurasia, i.e. this list basically deals with extinctions between 40000 BC and 1500 AD. They should be classified with the Wikipedia conservation status category "Prehistoric" in their individual accounts.

Taxonomic list of Late Quaternary prehistoric birds

All of these are Neornithes.

Struthioniformes

The Ostrich and related ratites.

  • Aepyornithidae - Elephant Birds
    • Aepyornis
      • Aepyornis hildebrandti (Madagascar)
      • Aepyornis maximus (Madagascar)
      • Aepyornis medius (Madagascar)
      • Aepyornis gracilis (Madagascar)
      • Aepyornis titan - may be a synonym of A. maximus (Madagascar)

Up to 4 more undescribed species are known, but taxonomy is not fully resolved. At least one species survived until historic times.

  • Dinornithidae - Moa
    • Anomalopteryx
      • Bush Moa, Anomalopteryx didiformis (South Island, New Zealand)
    • Euryapteryx
      • North Island Broad-billed Moa, Euryapteryx curtus (North Island, New Zealand)
      • South Island Broad-billed Moa, Euryapteryx geranoides (South Island, New Zealand)
    • Pachyornis
      • Crested Moa, Pachyornis australis (South Island, New Zealand)
      • Heavy-footed Moa, Pachyornis elephantopus (South Island, New Zealand)
      • Pachyornis cf. elephantopus (South Island, New Zealand)
      • Mappin's Moa, Pachyornis mappini (North Island, New Zealand)
      • Pachyornis cf. mappini (North Island, New Zealand)
    • Dinornis
      • North Island Giant Moa, Dinornis novaezealandiae (North Island, New Zealand)
      • Dinornis robustus (South Island, New Zealand)
      • Dinornis cf. robustus (South Island, New Zealand)
      • Dinornis cf. robustus (South Island, New Zealand)
    • Emeus
      • Eastern Moa, Emeus crassus (South Island, New Zealand)
    • Megalapteryx
      • Benham's Megalapteryx, Megalapteryx benhami (South Island, New Zealand)
      • Lesser Megalapteryx, Megalapteryx didinus (South Island, New Zealand) - may have survived until historic times
  • Struthionidae - Ostriches
    • Extinct species of extant genera
      • Asian Ostrich, Struthio asiaticus (Central Asia to China)
  • Apterygidae - Kiwi
    • Extinct species of extant genera
      • Eastern Tokoeka, Apteryx sp. (South Island, New Zealand) - possibly the same as the Okarito, Haast or South Island tokoeka.

Anseriformes

Artist's rendition of a moa-nalo, flightless ducks which had evolved to become larger than a swan and possessed massive beaks shaped much like a turtle's bill. Moa-nalo were the dominant herbivores on the larger Hawaiian Islands and were hunted to extinction during the second half of the 1st millennium AD.
Artist's rendition of a moa-nalo, flightless ducks which had evolved to become larger than a swan and possessed massive beaks shaped much like a turtle's bill. Moa-nalo were the dominant herbivores on the larger Hawaiian Islands and were hunted to extinction during the second half of the 1st millennium AD.

The group that includes modern ducks and geese.

  • Dromornithidae - The Australian mihirungs or "demon ducks"
    • Genyornis
      • Genyornis newtoni (Australia)
  • Anatidae - Ducks, geese and swans
    • Geochen
      • Wetmore's Goose, Geochen rhuax (Big Island, Hawaiian Islands)
    • Cnemiornis
      • South Island Goose, Cnemiornis calcitrans (South Island, New Zealand)
      • North Island Goose, Cnemiornis gracilis (North Island, New Zealand)
    • Pachyanas
      • Chatham Island Duck, Pachyanas chathamica (Chatham Islands, SW Pacific)
    • Centrornis
      • Malagasy Sheldgoose, Centrornis majori (Madagascar)
    • Chelychelynechen
      • Turtle-jawed Moa-nalo, Chelychelynechen quassus (Kaua‘i, Hawaiian Islands)
    • Ptaiochen
      • Small-billed Moa-nalo, Ptaiochen pau (Maui, Hawaiian Islands)
    • Thambetochen
      • Maui Nui Large-billed Moa-nalo, Thambetochen chauliodous (Maui and Moloka‘i, Hawaiian Islands)
      • O‘ahu Large-billed Moa-nalo, Thambetochen xanion (O‘ahu, Hawaiian Islands)
    • Chendytes
      • Law's Diving-goose, Chendytes lawi (California and Southern Oregon Coasts and Channel Islands, E Pacific)
    • Extinct species of extant genera
      • Nēnē-nui, Branta hylobadistes (Maui, possibly Kaua‘i and O‘ahu, Hawaiian Islands)
      • Chatham Islands Shelduck, Tadorna cf. variegata (Chatham Islands, SW Pacific)
      • Malagasy Shelduck, Alopochen sirabensis (Madagascar; may be subspecies of the Mauritian Shelduck)
      • Scarlett's Duck, Malacorhynchus scarletti (New Zealand)
      • Finsch's Duck, Chenonetta finschi (New Zealand; possibly survived to 1870)
      • Macquarie Islands Teal, Anas cf. chlorotis (Macquarie Islands, SW Pacific)
      • Chatham Islands Merganser, Mergus cf. australis (Chatham Islands, SW Pacific)
      • New Zealand Stiff-tailed Duck, Oxyura vantetsi (North Island, New Zealand)
      • De Lautour's Duck, Biziura delautouri (New Zealand)
      • Extinct subspecies of extant species
        • New Zealand Swan, Cygnus atratus sumnerensis (New Zealand, possibly Chatham Islands)
        • Chatham Islands Teal, Anas chlorotis ssp. nov. (Chatham Islands, SW Pacific)
    • Placement unresolved
      • Giant Hawaii Goose, ?Branta sp. (Big Island, Hawaiian Islands)
      • Giant O‘ahu Goose, Anatidae sp. et gen. indet. (O‘ahu, Hawaiian Islands)
      • Long-legged "Shelduck", Anatidae sp. et gen. indet. (Kaua‘i, Hawaiian Islands)
      • Rota Flightless Duck, Anatidae sp. et gen. indet. (Rota, Marianas)
      • Small-eyed Duck, Anatidae sp. et gen. indet. (Kaua‘i, Hawaiian Islands)

Galliformes

The group that includes modern chickens and quails.

  • Sylviornithidae - The Sylviornis or New Caledonian Giant Megapode
    • Sylviornis
      • Sylviornis, Sylviornis neocaledoniae (New Caledonia, Melanesia)
  • Megapodidae - Megapodes
    • Megavitiornis
      • Noble Megapode, Megavitiornis altirostris (Viti Levu, Fiji)
    • Extinct species of extant genera
      • Consumed Scrubfowl, Megapodius alimentum (Tonga and Fiji)
      • Viti Levu Scrubfowl, Megapodius amissus (Viti Levu and possibly Kadavu, Fiji) - may have survived to the early 19th or the 20th century.
      • Giant Scrubfowl, Megapodius molistructor (New Caledonia and Tonga) - may have survived to the late 18th century
      • ‘Eua Scrubfowl, Megapodius sp. (‘Eua, Tonga)
      • Lifuka Scrobfowl, Megapodius sp. (Lifuka, Tonga)
      • New Ireland Scrubfowl, Megapodius sp. (New Ireland, Melanesia)
  • Phasianidae - Pheasants and allies
    • Extinct species of extant genera
      • Canary Islands Quail, Coturnix gomerae (Canary Islands, East Atlantic)

Charadriiformes

Gulls, auks, shorebirds

  • Laridae - Gulls
    • Extinct species of extant genera
      • Huahine Gull, Larus utunui (Huahine, Society Islands)
      • Kaua‘i Gull, Larus sp. (Kaua‘i, Hawaiian Islands)
      • Larus sp. (Saint Helena, Atlantic) - may be extant form
  • Charadriidae - Lapwings and plovers
    • Extinct species of extant genera
      • Malagasy Lapwing, Vanellus madagascariensis (Madagascar)
  • Alcidae - Auks
    • Extinct species of extant genera
      • Dow's Puffin, Fratercula dowi (Channel Islands, E Pacific)
  • Scolopacidae - Waders and snipes
    • Extinct species of extant genera
      • Henderson Island Sandpiper, Prosobonia sp. (Henderson Island, S Pacific)
      • Mangaian Sandpiper, Prosobonia sp. (Mangaia, Cook Islands)
      • Ua Huka Sandpiper, Prosobonia sp. (Ua Huka, Marquesas)
      • Giant Chatham Island Snipe, Coenocorypha chathamensis (Chatham Islands, Southwest Pacific)
      • Viti Levu Snipe, Coenocorypha miratropica (Viti Levu, Fiji)
      • New Caledonia Snipe, Coenocorypha sp. (New Caledonia, Melanesia)
      • Norfolk Island Snipe, Coenocorypha sp. (Norfolk Island, Southwest Pacific)
      • Gallinago sp. (Cayman Brac, Cayman Islands) - may be the same as
      • Gallinago sp. (Cuba, West Indies) - may be the same as
      • Gallinago sp. (Bahamas, West Indies)
      • Puerto Rican Woodcock, Scolopax anthonyi

Gruiformes

The group that includes modern rails and cranes.

  • Rallidae - Rails
    • Capellirallus
      • Snipe-rail, Capellirallus karamu (North Island, New Zealand)
    • Vitirallus
      • Viti Levu Rail, Vitirallus watlingi (Viti Levu, Fiji)
    • Hovacrex
      • Hova Gallinule, Hovacrex roberti (Madagascar)
    • Nesotrochis
      • Antillean Cave-Rail, Nesotrochis debooyi (Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands, West Indies) - may have survived until historic times
      • Haitian Cave-Rail, Nesotrochis steganinos (Haiti, West Indies)
      • Cuban Cave-Rail, Nesotrochis picapicensis (Cuba, West Indies)
    • Extinct species of extant genera
      • New Caledonian Swamphen, Porphyrio kukwiedei (New Caledonia, Melanesia) - may have survived into historic times
      • North Island Takahē, Porphyrio mantelli (North Island, New Zealand)
      • Huahine Swamphen, Porphyrio mcnabi (Huahine, Society Islands)
      • Marquesan Swamphen, Porphyrio paepae (Hiva Oa and Tahuata, Marquesas) - may have survived to the late 19th century
      • Buka Swamphen, Porphyrio sp. (Buka, Solomon Islands)
      • Giant Swamphen, Porphyrio sp. (New Ireland, Melanesia)
      • Mangaia Swamphen, ?Porphyrio sp. (Mangaia, Cook Islands)
      • New Ireland Swamphen, Porphyrio sp. (New Ireland, Melanesia)
      • Norfolk Island Swamphen, Porphyrio sp. (Norfolk Island, Southwest Pacific)
      • Rota Swamphen, Porphyrio sp. (Rota, Marianas)
      • Ibiza Rail, Rallus eivissensis (Ibiza, Mediterranean)
      • Lifuka Rail, Nesoclopeus sp. (Lifuka, Tonga)
      • Niue Rail, Gallirallus huiatua (Niue, Cook Islands)
      • Mangaian Rail, Gallirallus ripleyi (Mangaia, Cook Islands)
      • Huahine Rail, Gallirallus storrsolsoni (Huahine, Society Islands)
      • ‘Eua Rail, Gallirallus vekamatolu (‘Eua, Tonga)
      • Marianas Rail, Gallirallus cf. owstoni (Marianas, West Pacific)
      • Marquesan Rail, Gallirallus sp. (Marquesas)
      • New Ireland Rail, Gallirallus sp. (New Ireland, Melanesia)
      • Norfolk Island Rail, Gallirallus sp. (Norfolk Island, Southwest Pacific) - may have survived to the 19th century
      • Great O‘ahu Crake, Porzana ralphorum (O‘ahu, Hawaiian Islands)
      • Great Maui Grake, Porzana severnsi (Maui, Hawaiian Islands)
      • Mangaian Crake, Porzana rua (Mangaia, Cook Islands)
      • Liliput Crake, Porzana menehune (Moloka‘i, Hawaiian Islands)
      • Small O‘ahu Crake, Porzana ziegleri (O‘ahu, Hawaiian Islands)
      • Small Maui Crake, Porzana keplerorum (Maui, Hawaiian Islands)
      • Easter Island Crake, Porzana sp. (Easter Island, Southeast Pacific)
      • Great Big Island Crake, Porzana sp. (Big Island, Hawaiian Islands)
      • Great Kaua‘i Crake, Porzana sp. (Kaua‘i, Hawaiian Islands)
      • Huahine Crake, Porzana sp. (Huahine, Society Islands)
      • Mangaian Crake #2, Porzana sp. (Mangaia, Cook Islands)
      • Marquesan Crake, Porzana sp. (Ua Huka, Marquesas)
      • Marianas Crake, Porzana sp. (Marianas, West Pacific) - possibly 2 species
      • Medium Kaua‘i Crake, Porzana sp. (Kaua‘i, Hawaiian Islands)
      • Medium Maui Crake, Porzana sp. (Maui, Hawaiian Islands)
      • Small Big Island Crake, Porzana sp. (Big Island, Hawaiian Islands)
      • Hodgen's Waterhen, Gallinula hodgenorum (New Zealand)
      • ‘Eua Gallinule, Gallinula sp. (‘Eua, Tonga) - if genus Pareudiastes is accepted this species belongs there
      • Viti Levu Gallinule, ?Gallinula sp. (Viti Levu, Fiji) - would also be separated in Pareudiastes if that genus is considered valid, or may be new genus.
      • Chatham Island Coot, Fulica chathamensis (Chatham Islands, Southwest Pacific)
      • New Zealand Coot, Fulica prisca (New Zealand)
    • Placement unresolved
      • Barbados Rail, Rallidae gen. et sp. indet. (Barbados, West Indies) - formerly Fulica podagrica (partim)
      • Easter Island Rail, Rallidae gen. et sp. indet. (Easter Island)
      • Fernando de Noronha Rail, Rallidae gen. et sp. indet. (Fernando de Noronha, Atlantic) - may have survived until historic times
  • Aptornithidae - Adzebills
    • Aptornis
      • North Island Adzebill, Aptornis otidiformis (North Island, New Zealand)
      • South Island Adzebill, Aptornis defossor (South Island, New Zealand)
  • Rhynochetidae - Kagus
    • Extinct species of extant genera
      • Lowland Kagu, Rhynochetos orarius (New Caledonia, Melanesia)

Ciconiiformes

The diverse group that includes storks, herons and New World vultures.

  • Ardeidae - Herons
    • Extinct species of extant genera
      • Bennu Heron, Ardea bennuides (United Arab Emirates)
      • ‘Eua Night Heron, Nycticorax sp. (‘Eua, Tonga)
      • Lifuka Night Heron, Nycticorax sp. (Lifuka, Tonga) - may be same as ‘Eua species
      • Niue Night Heron, Nycticorax kalavikai (Niue, Cook Islands)
    • Placement unresolved
      • Ardeidae gen. et sp. indet. (Easter Island, E Pacific)
  • Threskiornithidae - Ibises
    • Apteribis
      • Maui Upland Apteribis, Apteribis brevis (Maui, Hawaiian Islands)
      • Moloka‘i Apteribis, Apteribis glenos (Moloka‘i, Hawaiian Islands)
      • Maui Lowland Apteribis, Apteribis sp. (Maui, Hawaiian Islands)
    • Xenicibis
      • Club-winged Ibis, Xenicibis xympithecus (Jamaica, West Indies)
  • Teratornithidae - Teratorns
    • Teratornis
      • Merriam's Teratorn, Teratornis merriami (SW and S USA)
  • Cathartidae - New World Vultures
    • Extinct species of extant genera
      • Pleistocene Black Vulture, Coragyps occidentalis (SW and W USA)
    • Placement unresolved
      • ?Cathartes sp. (Cuba, West Indies)

Pelecaniformes

The group that includes modern pelicans and cormorants.

  • Sulidae - Gannets and boobies
      • Extinct subspecies of extant species
        • Ua Huka Booby, Papasula abbotti costelloi (Ua Huka, Marquesas)

Procellariiformes

The group that includes modern albatrosses, petrels and storm-petrels.

  • Procellariidae - Petrels
    • Extinct species of extant genera
      • Hole's Shearwater, Puffinus holeae (Fuerteventura, Canary Islands, and Atlantic coast of Iberian peninsula)
      • Olson's Shearwater, Puffinus olsoni (Canary Islands, E Atlantic)
      • Scarlett's Shearwater, Puffinus spelaeus (South Island, New Zealand)
      • O‘ahu Petrel, Pterodroma jugabilis (O‘ahu, Hawaiian Islands)
      • Canary Islands Petrel, Pterodroma sp. (El Hierro, Canary Islands) - possibly extirpated population of extant species
      • Chatham Extinct Petrel, Pterodroma sp. (Chatham Islands, SW Pacific)
      • Henderson Island Petrel, Pterodroma sp. (Henderson Island, S Pacific)
    • Placement unresolved
      • Procellariidae sp. (Easter Island, East Pacific)

Sphenisciformes

  • Spheniscidae - Penguins
    • Extinct species of extant genera
      • Chatham Islands Penguin, Eudyptes sp. (Chatham Islands, Southwest Pacific) - possibly still extant in 1867

Columbiformes

  • Columbidae - Doves and pigeons
    • Dysmoropelia
      • Saint Helena Flightless Pigeon, Dysmoropelia dekarchiskos (Saint Helena, Atlantic) - may have survived to the 16th century
    • Natunaornis
      • Viti Levu Giant Pigeon, Natunaornis gigoura (Viti Levu, Fiji)
    • Extinct species of extant genera
      • Society Islands Cuckoo-Dove, Macropygia arevarevauupa (Huahine, Society Islands)
      • Marquesan Cuckoo-Dove, Macropygia heana (Marquesas, Pacific)
      • Puerto Rican Quail-dove, Geotrygon larva (Puerto Rico, West Indies)
      • Tongan Tooth-billed Pigeon, Didunculus placopedetes (Tonga, Pacific)
      • Greater Maned Pigeon, Caloenas canacorum (New Caledonia, Tonga)
      • Henderson Island Imperial Pigeon, Ducula harrisoni (Henderson Island, S Pacific)
      • Lakeba Imperial Pigeon, Ducula lakeba (Lakeba, Fiji)
      • Steadman's Imperial Pigeon, Ducula david (‘Eua, Tonga, and Wallis Island)
      • Tongan Imperial Pigeon, Ducula sp. (‘Eua, Foa and Lifuka, Tonga) - may be D. david, D. lakeba or new species
      • Ducula cf. galeata (Cook Islands) - possibly new species
      • Ducula cf. galeata (Society Islands) - possibly new species
      • Ducula sp. (Viti Levu, Fiji) - may be D. lakeba
      • Great Ground Dove, Gallicolumba nui (Marquesas and Cook Islands)
      • Henderson Island Ground Dove, Gallicolumba leonpascoi (Henderson Island, S Pacific)
      • New Caledonian Ground Dove, Gallicolumba longitarsus (New Caledonia)
      • Huahine Ground Dove, Gallicolumba sp. (Huahine, Society Islands) - G. nui?
      • Mangaia Ground Dove, Gallicolumba sp. (Mangaia, Cook Islands) - G. nui?
      • Rota Ground Dove, Gallicolumba sp. (Rota, Marianas)
    • Placement unresolved
      • Henderson Island Archaic Pigeon, Columbidae gen. et sp. indet. (Henderson Island, S Pacific)

Psittaciformes

  • Cacatuidae - Cockatoos
    • Extinct species of extant genera
      • New Caledonian cockatoo, Cacatua sp. (New Caledonia)
      • New Ireland cockatoo, Cacatua sp. (New Ireland)
  • Psittacidae - Parrots, parakeets and lorikeets
    • Extinct species of extant genera
      • Sinoto's Lorikeet, Vini sinotoi (Marquesas, Pacific)
      • Conquered Lorikeet, Vini vidivici (Mangaia, Cook Islands, and Marqesas)
      • Chatham Islands Kaka, Nestor sp. (Chatham Islands, Southwest Pacific)
      • Pacific Eclectus Parrot, Eclectus infectus (Tonga, Vanuatu, possibly Fiji) - may have survived to the 18th century.
      • Saint Croix Macaw, Ara autocthones (Saint Croix, West Indies) [1]
    • Placement unresolved
      • Psittacidae gen. et sp. indet. 1 (Easter Island)
      • Psittacidae gen. et sp. indet. 2 (Easter Island)
      • Psittacidae gen. et sp. indet. (Rota, Marianas)

Cuculiformes

  • Cuculidae - Cuckoos
    • Extinct species of extant genera
      • Henderson Island Koel, Eudynamis cf. taitensis
      • Ancient Coua, Coua primaeva (Madagascar)
      • Bertha's Coua, Coua berthae (Madagascar)
      • Extinct subspecies of extant species
        • Conkling's Roadrunner, Geococcyx californianus conklingi (Inland SW North America)

Falconiformes

Birds of prey

  • Accipitridae - Hawks and eagles
    • Gigantohierax
      • Cuban Giant-Hawk, Gigantohierax suarezi (Cuba, West Indies)
    • Titanohierax
      • Bahaman Titan-Hawk, Titanohierax gloveralleni (Bahamas, West Indies)
      • Hispaniolan Titan-Hawk, Titanohierax sp. (Hispaniola, West Indies)
    • Harpagornis
      • Haast's Eagle, Harpagornis moorei (South Island, New Zealand)
    • Extinct species of extant genera
      • Powerful Goshawk, Accipiter efficax (New Caledonia, Melanesia)
      • Gracile Goshawk, Accipiter quartus (New Caledonia, Melanesia)
      • Accipiter sp. 1 (New Ireland, Melanesia)
      • Accipiter sp. 2 (New Ireland, Melanesia) - one of the two New Ireland species may be Meyer's Goshawk
      • Malagasy Crowned Hawk-eagle, Stephanoaetus mahery (Madagascar)
      • Malagasy Eagle, Aquila sp. (Madagascar)
      • Mime Harrier, Circus dossenus (Moloka‘i, Hawaiian Islands)
      • Eyles' Harrier, Circus eylesi (New Zealand)
    • Placement unresolved
      • Accipitridae gen. et sp. indet. (Cuba, West Indies) - formerly Aquila/Titanohierax borrasi
  • Falconidae - Falcons
    • Extinct species of extant genera
      • Cuban Kestrel, Falco kurochkini (Cuba, West Indies)
      • Bahaman Caracara, Polyborus creightoni (Bahamas and Cuba, West Indies) - may be same as P. latebrosus
      • Puerto Rican Caracara, Polyborus latebrosus (Puerto Rico, West Indies)

Caprimulgiformes

Nightjars, potoos and allies.

  • Aegothelidae - Owlet-nightjars
    • Extinct species of extant genera
      • New Zealand Owlet-Nightjar, Aegotheles novaezealandiae (New Zealand)
  • Caprimulgidae - Nightjars
    • Extinct species of extant genera
      • Cuban Parauque, Siphonorhis daiquiri (Cuba, West Indies) - possibly extant

Apodiformes

Swifts and hummingbirds.

  • Apodidae - Swifts
    • Extinct species of extant genera
      • Mangaia Swiftlet, Aerodramus manuoi (Mangaia, Cook Islands) - formerly Collocalia

Strigiformes

Owls and barn owls.

  • Strigidae - Owls
    • Grallistrix
      • Kaua‘i Stilt Owl, Grallistrix auceps (Kaua‘i, Hawaiian Islands)
      • Maui Stilt Owl, Grallistrix erdmani (Maui, Hawaiian Islands)
      • Moloka‘i Stilt Owl, Grallistrix geleches (Moloka‘i, Hawaiian Islands)
      • O‘ahu Stilt Owl, Grallistrix orion (O‘ahu, Hawaiian Islands)
    • Ornimegalonyx
      • Cuban Giant Owl, Ornimegalonxy oteroi (Cuba, West Indies)
      • Ornimegalonyx sp.
    • Extinct species of extant genera
      • Cretan Little Owl, Athene cretensis (Crete, Mediterranean)
      • New Caledonian Boobook, Ninox cf. novaeseelandiae (New Caledonia, Melanesia) - possibly extant
  • Tytonidae - Barn Owls
    • Extinct species of extant genera
      • Puerto Rican Barn Owl, Tyto cavatica (Puerto Rico, West Indies) - may still have existed in 1912
      • New Caledonian Barn Owl, ?Tyto letocarti (New Caledonia, Melanesia)
      • Malta Barn Owl, Tyto melitensis (Malta, Mediterranean)
      • Noel's Barn Owl, Tyto noeli (Cuba, West Indies)
      • Hispaniolan Barn Owl, Tyto ostologa (Hispaniola, West Indies)
      • Bahaman Barn Owl, Tyto pollens (Andros, Bahamas)
      • Rivero's Barn Owl, Tyto riveroi (Cuba, West Indies)
      • Mussau Barn Owl, Tyto cf. novaehollandiae (Mussau, Melanesia)
      • New Ireland Greater Barn Owl, Tyto cf. novaehollandiae (New Ireland, Melanesia)
      • New Ireland Lesser Barn Owl, Tyto sp. (New Ireland, Melanesia)
      • Cuban Barn Owl, Tyto sp. (Cuba, West Indies)
    • Placement unresolved
      • Easter Island Barn Owl, Tytonidae sp. (Easter Island, Southeast Pacific)

Passeriformes

  • Placement unresolved
    • Slender-billed Kaua‘i passerine, Passeriformes gen. et sp. indet. (Kaua‘i, Hawaiian Islands)
    • Tiny Kaua‘i passerine, Passeriformes gen. et sp. indet. (Kaua‘i, Hawaiian Islands)
  • Acanthisittidae - New Zealand "Wrens"
    • Pachyplichas
      • Yaldwyn's Wren, Pachyplichas yaldwyni (North Island, New Zealand)
      • Grant-Mackie's Wren, Pachyplichas jagmi (South Island, New Zealand) - may be subspecies of P. yaldwyni
    • Dendroscansor
      • Long-billed Wren, Dendroscansor decurvirostris (South Island, New Zealand)
      • Extinct subspecies of extant species
        • North Island Piwauwau, Xenicus gilviventris ssp. nov. (North Island, New Zealand)
  • Meliphagidae - Honeyeaters
    • Prehistorically extinct species of Recently extinct genera
      • O‘ahu Kioea, Chaetoptila cf. angustipluma (O‘ahu and Maui, Hawaiian Islands)
      • Narrow-billed Kioea, ?Chaetoptila sp. (Maui, Hawaiian Islands)
  • Dicruridae - Drongos, fantails and monarch flycatchers
    • Placement unresolved
      • Ua Huka Flycatcher, cf. Myiagra sp. (Ua Huka, Marquesas)
  • Corvidae - Crows, Ravens, Jays and Magpies
    • Extinct species of extant genera
      • Chatham Islands Raven, Corvus moriorum (Chatham Islands, Southwest Pacific)
      • High-billed Crow, Corvus impluviatus (O‘ahu, Hawaiian Islands)
      • New Zealand Raven, Corvus antipodum (New Zealand)
        • North Island Raven, Corvus antipodum antipodum (North Island, New Zealand)
        • South Island Raven, Corvus antipodum pycrafti (South Island, New Zealand)
      • Robust Crow, Corvus viriosus (O‘ahu and Moloka‘i, Hawaiian Islands)
      • New Ireland Crow, Corvus sp. (New Ireland, Melanesia)
      • Puerto Rican Crow, Corvus pumilis (Puerto Rico and St Croix, West Indies) - probably a subspecies of C. nasicus or C. palmarum
  • Sturnidae - Starlings
    • Extinct species of extant genera
      • Huahine Starling, Aplonis diluvialis (Huahine, Society Islands)
  • Sylviidae - Old World warblers
    • Extinct species of extant genera
      • ‘Eua Bush Warbler, Cettia sp. (‘Eua, Tonga)
  • Zosteropidae - White-eyes
    • Placement unresolved
      • Tongan White-Eye, Zosteropidae gen. et sp. indet. (‘Eua, Tonga)
  • Turdidae - Thrushes
    • Extinct species of extant genera
      • Maui Oloma‘o, Myadestes cf. lanaiensis (Maui, Hawaiian Islands) - may have survived until the 19th century
  • Fringillidae - Finches
    • Extinct species of extant genera
      • Trías Greenfinch, Carduelis triasi (La Palma, Canary Islands)
  • Drepanididae - Hawaiian Honeycreepers
    • Orthiospiza
      • Highland Finch, Orthiospiza howarthi (Maui, Hawaiian Islands)
    • Xestospiza
      • Cone-billed Finch, Xestospiza conica (Kaua‘i and O‘ahu, Hawaiian Islands)
      • Ridge-billed Finch, Xestospiza fastigialis (O‘ahu, Maui and Moloka‘i, Hawaiian Islands)
    • Vangulifer
      • Strange-billed Finch, Vangulifer mirandus (Maui, Hawaiian Islands)
      • Thin-billed Finch, Vangulifer neophasis (Maui, Hawaiian Islands)
    • Aidemedia
      • O‘ahu Icterid-like Gaper, Aidemedia chascax (O‘ahu, Hawaiian Islands)
      • Sickle-billed Gaper, Aidemedia zanclops (O‘ahu, Hawaiian Islands)
      • Maui Nui Icterid-like Gaper, Aidemedia lutetiae (Maui and Moloka‘i, Hawaiian Islands)
    • Prehistorically extinct species of extant and Recently extinct genera
      • Kaua‘i Finch, Telespiza persecutrix (Kaua‘i and O‘ahu, Hawaiian Islands)
      • Maui Nui Finch, Telespiza ypsilon (Maui and Moloka‘i, Hawaiian Islands)
      • Maui Finch, Telespiza cf. ypsilon (Maui, Hawaiian Islands)
      • Kaua‘i Palila, Loxioides kikuichi (Kaua‘i, Hawaiian Islands) - possibly survived until early 18th century
      • Scissor-billed Koa-Finch, Rhodacanthis forfex (Kaua‘i and Maui, Hawaiian Islands)
      • Primitive Koa-Finch, Rhodacanthis litotes (O‘ahu and Maui, Hawaiian Islands)
      • O‘ahu Grosbeak Finch, Chloridops wahi (O‘ahu and Maui, Hawaiian Islands)
      • Giant ("King Kong") Grosbeak Finch, Chloridops regiskongi (O‘ahu, Hawaiian Islands)
      • Kaua‘i Grosbeak Finch, Chloridops sp. (Kaua‘i, Hawaiian Islands) - may be same as Chloridops wahi
      • Maui Grosbeak Finch, Chloridops sp. (Maui, Hawaiian Islands)
      • Giant Amakihi, Hemignathus vorpalis (Big Island, Hawaiian Islands)
      • Hoopoe-billed ‘Akialoa, Hemignathus upupirostris - sometimes in genus Akialoa (Kaua‘i and O‘ahu, Hawaiian Islands)
      • Stout-legged Finch, Ciridops tenax (Kaua‘i, Hawaiian Islands)
      • Moloka‘i Ula-ai-Hawane, Ciridops cf. anna (Moloka‘i, Hawaiian Islands)
      • O‘ahu Ula-ai-Hawane, Ciridops sp. (O‘ahu, Hawaiian Islands)
    • Placement unresolved
      • Drepanididae gen. et sp. indet. (Maui, Hawaiian Islands) - at least 3 species
      • Drepanididae gen. et sp. indet. (O‘ahu, Hawaiian Islands)
  • Emberizidae - Buntings
    • Pedinornis
      • Puerto Rican Obscure Bunting, Pedinornis stirpsarcana (Puerto Rico, West Indies)
    • Extinct species of extant genera
      • Long-legged Bunting, Emberiza alcoveri (Tenerife, Canary Islands)
  • Hirundinidae - Swallows and martins
      • Extinct subspecies of extant species
        • Henderson Island Pacific Swallow, Hirundo tahitensis ssp. nov. (Henderson Island, S Pacific)
  • Estrildidae - Waxbills
    • Extinct species of extant genera
      • Rota Parrotfinch, Erythrura sp. (Rota, Marianas)

References

  1. ^ Wetmore, A. (1918). "Bones of birds collected by Theodoor de Booy from kitchen midden deposits in the islands of St Thomas and St Croix". Proceedings of the United States National Museum 54: 513-522.

External links

See also


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