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Neornithes

Birds Guide

Neornithes

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Neornithes

The sub-class that contains all modern birds.

  • Unresolved and basal forms
    • Apatornis (Smoky Hill Chalk Late Cretaceous of Twin Butte Creek, USA) - anseriform?
    • Ceramornis (Lance Creek Late Cretaceous) - charadriiform?
    • "Cimolopteryx" (Lance Creek Late Cretaceous) - charadriiform?
    • Gallornis (Late Cretaceous of Haţeg Basin, Romania) - phoenicopteriform or galliform
    • Lonchodytes (Lance Creek Late Cretaceous of Wyoming, USA) - gaviiform?/procellariiform, pelecaniform?
    • †Neornithes incerta sedis AMNH 25272 (Lance Creek Late Cretaceous of Converse County, USA) - phalacrocoracid?
    • Palintropus (Lance Creek Late Cretaceous) - quercymegapodiid or charadriform
    • Teviornis (Nemegt Late Cretaceous of S Mongolia) - presbyornithid?
    • Torotix (Late Cretaceous) - pelecaniform, charadriiform, procellariform or phoeniopteriform
    • †UCMP 117598 (Hell Creek Late Cretaceous of Bug Creek West, USA)
    • †UCMP 117599 (Hell Creek Late Cretaceous of Bug Creek West, USA) - anseriform?
    • †UCMP 143274 (Lance Creek Late Cretaceous of Niobrara County, USA) - psittaciform?
    • Laornis (Late Cretaceous?)
    • Volgavis (Early Palaeocene of Volgograd, Russia) - charadriiform?
    • Argillipes (London Clay Early Eocene of England) - galliform?
    • Coturnipes (Early Eocene of England, and Virginia, USA?) - galliform, falconiform?
    • Neanis (Early Eocene) - primobucconid, piciform?
    • Neptuniavis (London Clay Early Eocene of England) - pelagornithid or procellariid
    • Onychopteryx (Early Eocene of Argentina)
    • Paracathartes (Early Eocene of WC USA) - lithornithiform?
    • Percolinus (London Clay Early Eocene of England) - galliform?
    • †"Green River Palaeognath" USNM 336103 (Green River Early/Middle Eocene)
    • Palaeopsittacus (Early - Middle Eocene of NW Europe) - caprimulgiform (podargid?)
    • Amitabha (Bridger Middle Eocene of Forbidden City, USA)
    • Hassiavis (Middle Eocene of Messel, Germany) - archaeotrogonid, piciform?
    • Protocypselomorphus (Middle Eocene of Messel, Germany) - caprimulgiform, apodiform or ancestral to both
    • Eocathartes (Middle Eocene of Germany) - cathartid?
    • Ludiortyx (Montmartre Late Eocene of Montmartre, France) - rallid, quercymegapodid?
    • Petropluvialis (Late Eocene of England) - may be same as Palaeopapia; anseriform?
    • "Phasianus" alfhildae (Washakie B Late Eocene of Haystack Butte, USA) - gruiform, ciconiiform, phoenicopteriform?
    • Talantatos (Late Eocene of Paris Bain, France) - gruiform?
    • Telecrex (Irdin Manha Late Eocene of Shara Murun, Mongolia) - meleagrid or gruiform (rallid?)
    • "Colymboides" anglicus (Late Eocene/Early Oligocene of Hordwell, England) - gaviiform? previously included in Palaeopapia eous
    • Agnopterus (Late Eocene - Late Oligocene of Europe) - phoenicopteriform or anseriform, includes Cygnopterus lambrechti
    • Plesiocathartes (Late Eocene -? Early Miocene of SW Europe) - cathartid, leptosomid?
    • Botauroides (Eocene of Wyoming, USA)- coliiform?
    • Aminornis (Deseado Early Oligocene of Rio Deseado, Argentina) - gruiform?
    • Ciconiopsis (Deseado Early Oligocene of Patagonia, Argentina) - ciconiid?
    • Cruschedula (Deseado Early Oligocene of Golfo San Jorge, Argentina) - accipitrid?
    • "Headonornis hantoniensis" BMNH PAL 4989 (Hampstead Early Oligocene of Isle of Wight, England) - formerly "Ptenornis"; anseriform?
    • Loncornis (Deseado Early Oligocene of Rio Deseado, Argentina) - gruiform?
    • Manu (Early Oligocene of New Zealand) - diomedeid?
    • Palaeocrex (Early Oligocene of Trigonias Quarry, USA) - rallid?
    • Palaeopapia (Hampstead Early Oligocene of Isle of Wight, England) - anseriform?
    • Paracygnopterus (Early Oligocene of Belgium and England) - anatid?
    • "Pararallus" hassenkampi (Sieblos Dysodil Early Oligocene of Sieblos, Germany)
    • Teracus (Early Oligocene of France)
    • "Anas" creccoides (Early/Middle Oligocene of Belgium) - anseriform?
    • Limicorallus (Indricotherium Middle Oligocene of Chelkar-Teniz, Kazakhstan) - anatid?
    • Megagallinula (Indricotherium Middle Oligocene of Chelkar-Teniz, Kazakhstan)
    • "Palaeorallus" alienus (Middle Oligocene of Tatal-Gol, Mongolia) - galliform?
    • Gnotornis (Brule Late Oligocene of Shannon County, USA)
    • Tiliornis (Late Oligocene of South America) - lapsus for Teleornis?
    • Gaviella (Oligocene? of Wyoming, USA) - gaviiform? plotopterid?
    • Neculus (Patagonia Early Miocene of Patagonia, Argentina) - sphenisciform?
    • "Propelargus" olseni (Hawthorne Early Miocene of Tallahassee, USA) - ciconiiform?
    • †MNHN SA 1259-1263 (Early/Middle Miocene of Sansan, France) - passeriform?
    • Anisolornis (Santa Cruz Middle Miocene of Karaihen, Argentina) - gruiform, galliform, tinamiform?
    • "Ardea" perplexa (Middle Miocene of Sansan, France) - ardeid? strigiform?'
    • "Cygnus herrenthalsi" (Middle Miocene of Belgium)
    • Diamantornis (Middle Miocene of Namibia) - ratite?
    • Namornis (Middle Miocene of Namibia and Kenya - Baynunah Late Miocene of Abu Dhabi) - ratite?
    • "Limnatornis" paludicola (Miocene of France) - coliid? phoeniculid?
    • "Picus" gaudryi (Miocene of France) - piciform?
    • Bathoceleus (Pliocene of New Providence, Bahamas) - picid?
    • Climacarthrus
    • Cunampaia
    • Eoneornis
    • Eutelornis
    • Foro
    • Halcyornis
    • Homalopus - piciform?
    • Juncitarsus - phoenicopteriform?
    • Kashinia - phoenicopteriform?
    • Liptornis
    • Loxornis
    • Procuculus
    • Protibis
    • Psammornis - may be same as Eremopezus
    • Pseudocrypturus - lithornithiform?
    • Pseudolarus
    • Pumiliornis
    • Qinornis
    • Riacama
    • Smiliornis
    • Teleornis
  • Archaeotrogonidae - ancestral to caprimulgiforms and apodiforms?
    • Archaeotrogon
  • Cladornithidae - pelecaniform?
    • Cladornis (Deseado Early Oligocene of Patagonia, Argentina)
  • Eleutherornithidae
    • Eleutherornis
    • Proceriavis
  • Eocypselidae - apodiform (hemiprocnid?)? caprimulgiform? basal to both?
    • Eocypselus (Late Paleocene ?- Early Eocene of NC Europe)
  • Eremopezidae - ratites?
    • Eremopezus (Late Eocene of North Africa) - includes Stromeria
  • Fluvioviridavidae
    • Fluvioviridavis (Green River Early Eocene of N America)
    • Eurofluvioviridavis (Middle Eocene of Messel, Germany)
  • Gracilitarsidae
    • Eutreptodactylus (Late Paleocene of Brazil)
    • Gracilitarsus (Middle Eocene of Messel, Germany)
  • Messelasturidae - accipitrid? basal to Strigiformes?
    • Tynskya (Early Eocene of N America and England)
    • Messelastur (Middle Eocene of Messel, Germany)
  • Parvicuculidae - cypselomorph, cuculiform, Primobucconidae?
    • Parvicuculus (Early Eocene of NW Europe)
  • Remiornithidae - palaeognath?
    • Remiornis
  • Sylphornithidae
    • Oligosylphe (Borgloon Early Oligocene of Hoogbutsel, Belgium)
    • Sylphornis
  • Tytthostonygidae - procellariiform, pelecaniform?
    • Tytthostonyx (Hornerstown Late Cretaceous/Early Palaeocene)
  • Zygodactylidae - piciform?
    • Zygodactylus
  • "Graculavidae" - a paraphyletic group, the "transitional shorebirds"
    • Graculavus (Lance Creek Late Cretaceous - Hornerstown Late Cretaceous/Early Palaeocene) - charadriiform?
    • Palaeotringa (Hornerstown Late Cretaceous?) - charadriiform?
    • Telmatornis (Navesink Late Cretaceous?) - charadriiform?
    • Scaniornis - phoenicopteriform?
    • Zhylgaia
    • Dakotornis
    • Placement unresolved
      • "Graculavidae" gen. et sp. indet. (Gloucester County, USA)

Struthioniformes

Ostrich and related ratites.

  • Placement unresolved
    • Diogenornis - rheid?
    • Opisthodactylus - rheid?
  • Casuariidae - Emus and cassowaries
    • Emuarius (Late Oligocene - Late Miocene) - formerly Dromaius
    • Extant genera with known prehistoric species
      • Dromaius (Middle Miocene - Recent)
      • Casuarius
  • Rheidae - Rheas
    • Heterorhea
    • Hinasuri
  • Aepyornithidae - Elephant Birds
    • Mullerornis
  • Struthionidae - Ostriches
    • Palaeotis (Middle Eocene) - includes Palaeogrus geiseltalensis
    • Extant genera with known prehistoric species
      • Struthio (Early Miocene - Recent)

†Lithornithiformes

  • Lithornithidae - Primitive ratites
    • Promusophaga
    • Lithornis

Tinamiformes

  • Tinamidae - Tinamous
    • Querandiornis
    • Placement unresolved
      • Tinamidae gen. et sp. indet. MACN-SC Fleagle Collection (Early - Middle Miocene of S Argentina) - at least 2 species
    • Prehistoric species of extant genera
      • Eudromia sp. (Late Miocene of La Pampa Province, Argentina)
      • Eudromia olsoni (Late Pliocene of Buenos Aires Province, Argentina)
      • Nothura parvula (Late Pliocene of Buenos Aires Province, Argentina) - formerly Cayeornis
      • Eudromia intermedia - formerly Tinamisornis
      • Nothura paludosa (Pleistocene of Argentina)

Anseriformes

Statues of the mihirung Bullockornis planei at King's Park, Perth.
Statues of the mihirung Bullockornis planei at King's Park, Perth.

The group that includes modern ducks and geese.

  • Basal and unresolved forms
    • Anatalavis (Hornerstown Late Cretaceous/Early Paleocene of New Jersey, USA - London Clay Early Eocene of Walton-on-the-Naze, England) - anseranatid or basal
    • Proherodius (London Clay Early Eocene of London, England) - presbyornithid?
    • Paranyroca (Rosebud Early Miocene of Bennett County, USA) - Anatidae or own family?
  • Anhimidae - Screamers
    • Chaunoides
  • Dromornithidae - The Australian mihirungs or "demon ducks".
    • Dromornis (Late Miocene - Pliocene)
      Bullockornis (Middle Miocene)
      Barawertornis
      Ilbandornis
  • Presbyornithidae
    • Presbyornithidae gen. et sp. indet. (Barun Goyot Late Cretaceous of Mongolia)
    • Vegavis (Late Cretaceous)
    • Presbyornis (Paleocene of Maryland, USA - Bembridge Marls Early Oligocene of Burnt Wood, England)
    • Headonornis - only BMNH PAL 30325 belongs to this species, may belong to Presbyornis.
    • Telmabates
  • Anatidae - Ducks, geese and swans
    • Eonessa (Eocene of Utah, USA)
    • Cygnavus (Early Oligocene of Kazakhstan - Early Miocene of Germany)
    • Romainvillia (Early Oligocene of Belgium ?- Late Eocene of France)
    • Cygnopterus (Middle Oligocene of Belgium - Early Miocene of France)
    • Guguschia (Oligocene of Azerbaijan)
    • Megalodytes (Middle Miocene of California, USA)
    • Afrocygnus (Late Miocene ?- Early Pliocene of C Sahara, Africa)
    • Presbychen (Temblor Late Miocene of Sharktooth Hill, USA)
    • Paracygnus (Kimball Late Pliocene of Nebraska, USA)
    • Anabernicula (Late Pliocene ?- Late Pleistocene of SW and W North America)
    • Archaeocygnus (Pleistocene of Australia)
    • Aldabranas
    • Brantadorna
    • Dendrochen
    • Eremochen
    • Mionetta
    • Sinanas
    • Wasonaka
    • Placement unresolved
      • "cf. Megalodytes" (Haraichi Middle Miocene of Annaka, Japan)
      • "Chenopis" nanus - at least 2 taxa (Pleistocene of Australia)
    • Extant genera with known prehistoric (sub)species
      • Somateria (Middle Oligocene? - Recent)
      • Cygnus (Middle Miocene - Recent)
      • Histrionicus (Middle Miocene - Recent) - includes Ocyplonessa
      • Anas (Late Miocene - Recent) - includes Heterochen
      • Oxyura (Middle Pleistocene - Recent)
    • Additional prehistoric species of extant genera
      • Anser arenosus (Big Sandy Late Miocene of Wickieup, USA)
      • Anser arizonae (Big Sandy Late Miocene of Wickieup, USA)
      • Anser cygniformis (Miocene)
      • Anser condoni (Pleistocene of Fossil Lake, USA)
      • Anser azerbaidzhanicus
      • Anser oeningensis
      • Anser thompsoni
      • Branta woolfendeni (Big Sandy Late Miocene of Wickieup, USA)
      • Branta dickeyi (Late Pliocene - Late Pleistocene of W USA)
      • Branta esmeralda (Pliocene)
      • Branta howardae (Pliocene)
      • Branta propinqua (Middle Pleistocene of Fossil Lake, USA)
      • Branta hypsibata (Pleistocene of Fossil Lake, USA)
      • Bucephala ossivalis (Late Miocene/Early Pliocene of Bone Valley, USA) - may be subspecies of extant Bucephala clangula
      • Bucephala fossilis (Late Pliocene of California, USA)
      • Bucephala angustipes
      • Bucephala cereti
      • Chen pressa (Glenns Ferry Late Pliocene of Hagerman, USA)
      • Lophodytes floridana - formerly Anas/Querquedula
      • Mergus connectens
      • Mergus miscellus
      • Neochen debilis
      • Neochen pugil

Galliformes

The group that includes modern chickens and quails.

  • Placement unresolved
    • Austinornis (Austin Chalk Late Cretaceous of Fort McKinney, USA) - formerly Graculavus/Ichthyornis lentus
    • Procrax (Middle Eocene - Early Oligocene) - cracid? gallinuloidid?
    • Palaeortyx (Middle Eocene -? Late Oligocene) - phasianid or odontophorid
    • Palaeonossax (Brule Late Oligocene of South Dakota, USA) - cracid?
    • Taoperdix (Late Oligocene)
    • Archaeophasianus (Oligocene ?- Late Miocene) - tetraonid or phasianid
    • Palaealectoris (Agate Fossil Beds Early Miocene of Sioux County, USA) - tetraonid?
    • "Cyrtonyx" tedfordi (Barstow Late Miocene of Barstow, USA)
    • Archaealectrornis
    • Paleophasianus - tetraonid or cracid
  • Gallinuloididae
    • Gallinuloides (Green River Early/Middle Eocene of Wyoming, USA)
    • Paraortygoides (London Clay Early Eocene of Walton-on-the-Naze, England - Middle Eocene of Messel, Germany)
  • Paraortygidae
    • Pirortyx
    • Paraortyx
  • Quercymegapodiidae
    • Quercymegapodius (Middle Eocene - Early Oligocene)
    • Taubacrex (Late Oligocene/Early Miocene of Brazil)
    • Ameripodius (Late Oligocene - Early Miocene of Brazil and France)
  • Megapodidae - Megapodes
    • Ngawupodius
    • Prehistoric species of extant genera
      • Leipoa gallinacea - formerly Progura
  • Cracidae - Guans and Curassows
    • Boreortalis (Early Miocene) - may be same as Ortalis
    • Extant genera with known prehistoric species
      • Ortalis (Early Miocene - Recent)
  • Tetraonidae - Grouse
    • Placement unresolved
      • "Tympanuchus" stirtoni (Early Miocene)
      • "Tympanuchus" lulli (Pleistocene? of New Jersey)
    • Prehistoric species of extant genera
      • Lagopus atavus (Late Pliocene)
      • Lagopus balcanicus
      • Tetrao partium (Early Pleistocene)
      • Tetrao praeurogallus (Early Pleistocene)
      • Tetrao conjugens
      • Tetrao macropus
      • Tetrao rhodopensis
      • Dendragapus gilli (Late Pleistocene of WC and W USA) - formerly Palaeotetrix
      • Dendragapus lucasi (Late Pleistocene of Fossil Lake, USA)
      • Bonasa praebonasia
      • Prehistoric subspecies of extant species
        • Lagopus lagopus noaillensis
        • Lagopus mutus correzensis
  • Phasianidae - Pheasants, quails and partridges
    • Schaubortyx (Middle Eocene - Early Oligocene)
    • Chauvireria
    • Miogallus
    • Miophasianus
    • Palaeocryptonyx
    • Palaeoperdix
    • Pliogallus
    • Plioperdix
    • Prehistoric species of extant genera
      • Coturnix gallica (Late Oligocene - Late Miocene of SW to EC Europe)
      • Coturnix longipes
      • Gallus aesculapii (Late Miocene/Early Pliocene of Greece) - possibly belongs into Pavo
      • Gallus moldavicus (Late Pliocene of Moldavia)
      • Gallus beremendensis (Late Pliocene/Early Pleistocene of E Europe)
      • Gallus karabachensis (Early Pleistocene of Nagorno-Karabakh)
      • Gallus europaeus (Middle Pleistocene of Italy)
      • Pavo bravardi (Early - Late Pliocene)
      • Francolinus capeki (Late Pliocene of Hungary)
      • Perdix palaeoperdix
      • Prehistoric subspecies of extant species
        • Alectoris graeca martelensis
  • Odontophoridae - New World Quails
    • Nanortyx (Cypress Hills Early Oligocene of North Calf Creek, Canada)
    • Miortyx (Rosebud Early Miocene of Flint Hill, USA)
    • Neortyx (Early Pleistocene of Reddick, USA)
    • Placement unresolved
      • †Odontophoridae gen. et sp. indet. KUVP 9393 (White River Early/Middle Oligocene of Logan County, USA)
    • Prehistoric species of extant genera
      • Cyrtonyx cooki (Late Miocene? of Upper Sheep Creek, USA)
      • Callipepla'? shotwelli (Middle Pliocene of McKay Reservoir, USA) - formerly Lophortyx
      • Colinus hibbardi (Rexroad Late Pliocene of Rexroad, USA)
      • Colinus sp. (Late Pliocene of Benson, USA)
      • Colinus suilium (Early Pleistocene of SE USA)
      • Dendrortyx? sp. (Late Pleistocene of San Josecito Cavern, Mexico)
  • Meleagrididae - Turkeys
    • Rhegminornis (Early Miocene of Bell, USA)
    • Proagriocharis (Kimball Late Miocene/Early Pliocene of Lime Creek, USA)
    • Placement unresolved
      • Meleagridae gen. et sp. indet. (Late Miocene of Westmoreland County, USA)
    • Prehistoric species of extant genera
      • Meleagris sp. (Early Pliocene of Bone Valley, USA)
      • Meleagris leopoldi (Late Pliocene of Cita Canyon, USA) - formerly Agriochares
      • Meleagris progenes (Rexroad Late Pliocene, Meade County, USA) - formerly Agriochares
      • Meleagris sp. (Late Pliocene of Macasphalt Shell Pit, USA)
      • Meleagris anza (Early Pleistocene of San Diego County, USA)
      • Meleagris californica (Late Pleistocene of SW USA) - formerly Parapavo/Pavo
      • Meleagris crassipes (Late Pleistocene of SW North America)

Charadriiformes

Gulls, auks, shorebirds

  • Basal and unresolved taxa
    • †Charadriidae gen. et sp. indet. VI 9901 (Lopez de Bertodano Late Cretaceous of Vega Island, Antarctica) - burhinid? basal?
    • Boutersemia (Early Oligocene of Boutersem, Belgium) - glareolid?
  • Scolopacidae - Waders and snipes
    • Paractitis
    • Erolia
    • Placement unresolved
      • Scolopacidae gen. et sp. indet. (Middle Miocene of Františkovy Lázně, Czechia - Late Miocene of Kohfidisch, Austria)
    • Prehistoric species of extant genera
      • Limosa? gypsorum (Montmartre Late Eocene of France) - may belong to Numenius
      • Limosa vanrossemi (Monterey Late Miocene of Lompoc, USA)
      • Tringa edwardsi (Quercy Upper Eocene/Lower Oligocene of Mouillac, France)
      • Tringa sp. 1 (Late Miocene/Early Pliocene of Lee Creek Mine, USA)
      • Tringa sp. 2 (Late Miocene/Early Pliocene of Lee Creek Mine, USA)
      • Tringa antiqua (Late Pliocene of Meade County, USA)
      • Tringa ameghini (Late Pleistocene of Talara Tar Seeps, Peru)
      • Gallinago cf. media (Late Miocene/Early Pliocene of Lee Creek Mine, USA)
      • Scolopax carmesinae (Early/Middle Pliocene? of Menorca, Mediterranean)
      • "Scolopax baranensis (Early Pliocene of Hungary) - a nomen nudum
      • Scolopax hutchensi (Late Pliocene - Early Pleistocene of Florida, USA)
      • Phalaropus elenorae (Middle Pliocene)
  • Jacanidae - Jacanas
    • Nupharanassa (Early Oligocene)
    • Janipes
    • Prehistoric species of extant genera
      • Jacana farrandi
  • Laridae - Gulls
    • †Laridae gen. et sp. indet. (Early Oligocene)
    • Gaviota (Late Miocene of Cherry County, USA)
    • Prehistoric species of extant genera
      • Larus elegans (Late Oligocene/Early Miocene of St-Gérand-le-Puy, France)
      • Larus totanoides (Late Oligocene/Early Miocene of SE France)
      • Larus? desnoyersii (Early Miocene of SE France)
      • Larus pristinus (John Day Early Miocene of Willow Creek, USA)
      • Larus sp. (Grund Middle Miocene of Austria)
      • Larus elmorei (Bone Valley Early/Middle Pliocene of SE USA)
      • Larus lacus (Pinecrest Late Pliocene of SE USA)
      • Larus perpetuus (Pinecrest Late Pliocene of SE USA)
      • Larus sp. (San Diego Late Pliocene of SW USA)
      • Larus oregonus (Late Pliocene - Late Pleistocene of WC USA)
      • Larus robustus (Late Pliocene - Late Pleistocene of WC USA)
      • Larus sp. (Lake Manix Late Pleistocene of W USA)
  • Alcidae - Auks
    • Hydrotherikornis (Late Eocene of Oregon, USA)
    • Petralca (Early ?- Late Oligocene of Austria)
    • Miocepphus (Middle Miocene of CE USA)
    • Alcodes (Late Miocene of Orange County, USA)
    • Praemancalla (Late Miocene - Early Pliocene of Orange County, USA)
    • Mancalla (Late Miocene - Early Pleistocene of W North America)
    • Extant genera with known prehistoric species
      • Cepphus (Late Miocene - Recent)
        Cerorhinca (Late Miocene - Recent)
        Uria (Late Miocene - Recent)
        Alca (Late Miocene/Early Pliocene - Recent)
        Fratercula (Early Pliocene - Recent)
        Pinguinus (Early Pliocene - Recent)
        Ptychoramphus (Late Pliocene - Recent)
    • Additional prehistoric species of extant genera
      • Aethia rossmoori (Monterrey Late Miocene of Orange County, USA)
      • Aethia? sp. (Late Miocene of SW North America)
      • Brachyramphus dunkeli (San Diego Late Pliocene, SW USA)
      • Brachyramphus pliocenum (San Diego Late Pliocene of California, USA)
      • Synthliboramphus sp. (Late Miocene/Early Pliocene of Cedros Island, Mexico)
      • Synthliboramphus rineyi (San Diego Late Pliocene, SW USA)
  • Stercorariidae - Skuas and jaegers
    • Prehistoric species of extant genera
      • Stercorarius sp. (Middle Miocene)
      • Stercorarius shufeldti (Fossil Lake Middle Pleistocene of WC USA)
      • Prehistoric subspecies of extant species
        • Stercorarius pomarinus philippi
  • Glareolidae - Pratincoles
    • Paractiornis (Agate Fossil Beds Early Miocene of Sioux County, USA)
    • Mioglareola
    • Prehistoric species of extant genera
      • Glareola neogena
  • Burhinidae - Thick-knees
    • Prehistoric species of extant genera
      • Burhinus lucorum (Early Miocene)
      • Burhinus aquilonaris
      • Burhinus sp. (Cuba, West Indies)
      • Prehistoric subspecies of extant species
        • Burhinus bistriatus nanus (Bahamas, West Indies)
  • Charadriidae - Plovers
    • Jiliniornis (Huadian Middle Eocene of Huadian, China)
    • Viator
    • Prehistoric species of extant genera
      • Belanopteryx edmundi - formerly Vanellus
      • Belanopteryx downsi - formerly Vanellus
      • Oreopholus orcesi
  • Recurvirostridae - Avocets
    • Prehistoric species of extant genera
      • Himantopus olsoni (Big Sandy Late Miocene of Wickieup, USA)
      • Recurvirostra sanctaeneboulae

Gruiformes

Reconstruction of the diatryma, Gastornis sp.
Reconstruction of the diatryma, Gastornis sp.

The group that includes modern rails and cranes.

  • Placement unresolved
    • Propelargus (Late Eocene/Early Oligocene of Quercy, France) - cariamid or idornithid
    • Rupelrallus (Early Oligocene of Germany) - rallid?
    • Badistornis (Brule Middle Oligocene of Shannon County, USA)
    • "Probalearica" (Late Oligocene? - Middle Pliocene of Florida, USA, France?, Moldavia and Mongolia) - gruid?
    • Aramornis (Sheep Creek Middle Miocene of Snake Creek Quarries, USA) - gruid?
    • Euryonotus - rallid?
    • Occitaniavis - cariamid or idiornithid, includes Geranopsis elatus
  • Parvigruidae
    • Parvigrus (Early Oligocene of Pichovet, France)
  • Songziidae
    • Songzia
  • Gastornithidae - Diatrymas
    • Gastornis (Late Paleocene - Eocene of North America and W Europe) - includes Diatryma
    • Gasthornithidae gen. et sp. indet. PU 13258 (Early Eocene of Parly County, USA)
    • "Diatryma" corei (Middle Eocene of Lissieu, France)
    • Omorhamphus
    • Zhongyuanus
    • Placement unresolved
  • Rallidae - Rails
    • Eocrex (Wasatch Early Eocene of Steamboat Springs, USA)
    • Palaeorallus (Wasatch Early Eocene of Wyoming, USA)
    • Aletornis (Bridger Middle Eocene of Uinta County, USA)
    • Fulicaletornis (Bridger Middle Eocene of Henry's Fork, USA)
    • Ibidopsis (Hordwell Late Eocene of Hordwell, UK)
    • Quercyrallus (Late Eocene -? Late Oligocene of France)
    • Belgirallus (Early Oligocene of WC Europe)
    • Rallicrex (Corbula Middle/Late Oligocene of Kolzsvár, Romania)
    • Palaeoaramides (Late Oligocene/Early Miocene - Late Miocene of France)
    • Paraortygometra (Late Oligocene/Early Miocene of France)
    • Pararallus (Late Oligocene? - Late Miocene of C Europe)
    • Miofulica (Anversian Black Sand Middle Miocene of Antwerp, Belgium)
    • Miorallus (Middle Miocene of Sansan, France)
    • Creccoides
    • Microrallus
    • Montirallus
    • Parvirallus
    • Youngornis
    • Placement unresolved
      • Rallidae gen. et sp. indet. (Late Miocene of Lemoyne Quarry, USA)
      • Rallidae gen. et sp. indet. UMMP V55013/-14; UMMP V55012/V45750/V45746(Rexroad Late Pliocene of Saw Rock Canyon, USA)
      • Rallidae gen. et sp. indet. UMMP V29080 (Rexroad Late Pliocene of Fox Canyon, USA)
      • Rallidae gen. et sp. indet. (Bermuda, West Atlantic)
    • Extant genera with known prehistoric (sub)species
      • Fulica (Early Pliocene - Recent)
      • Gallinula (Late Pliocene - Recent)
    • Additional prehistoric species of extant genera
      • Coturnicops avita (Glenns Ferry Late Pliocene of Hagerman, USA)
      • Laterallus insignis (Rexroad Late Pliocene of Rexroad, USA)
      • Laterallus sp. (Late Pliocene of Macasphalt Shell Pit, USA)
      • Rallus lacustris (Late Pliocene of C North America)
      • Rallus phillipsi (Late Pliocene of Wickieup, USA)
      • Rallus prenticei (Late Pliocene of C North America) - formerly Gallinuloides
      • Rallus sp. (Rexroad Late Pliocene of Saw Rock Canyon, USA)
      • Rallus auffenbergi (Middle Pleistocene of SE North America) - formerly Porzana
      • Rallus ibycus (Shore Hills Late Pleistocene of Bermuda, W Atlantic)
      • Rallus recessus (St Georges Soil Late Pleistocene of Bermuda, W Atlantic)
      • Rallus natator (Pleistocene of San Josecito Cavern, Mexico) - formerly Epirallus
      • Rallus richondi - includes R. dubius
      • Porzana piercei (Shore Hills Late Pleistocene of Bermuda, W Atlantic)
      • Porzana estramosi
      • Porzana cf. flaviventer (Bermuda, West Atlantic)
  • Geranoididae
    • Eogeranoides (Willwood Early Eocene of Foster Gulch, USA)
    • Geranoides (Willwood Early Eocene of South Elk Creek, USA)
    • Palaeophasianus (Willwood Early Eocene of Bighorn County, USA)
    • Paragrus (Early Eocene of WC USA)
    • Geranodornis (Bridger Middle Eocene of Church Buttes, USA)
  • Eogruidae
    • Eogrus (Irdin Manha Middle/Late Eocene - Tung Gur Late Miocene/Early Pliocene of Mongolia)
    • Sonogrus (Ergilin Dzo Leate Eocene/Early Oligocene of Khor Dzan, Mongolia)
  • Ergilornithidae
    • Ergilornis (Early/Middle Oligocene of Ergil-Obo, Mongolia)
    • Proergilornis (Early/Middle Oligocene of Ergil-Obo, Mongolia)
    • Amphipelargus - includes Urmiornis
  • Gruidae - Cranes
    • Palaeogrus (Middle Eocene of Germany and Italy - Middle Miocene of France)
    • Eobalearica (Ferghana Late? Eocene of Ferghana, Uzbekistan)
    • Geranopsis (Hordwell Late Eocene - Early Oligocene of England)
    • Camusia (Late Miocene of Menorca, Mediterranean)
    • Placement unresolved
      • Gruidae gen. et sp. indet. - formerly Grus conferta (Late Miocene/Early Pliocene of Contra Costa County, USA)
    • Prehistoric species of extant genera
      • Balearica rummeli (Early Miocene of Germany) - formerly Basityto
      • Balearica exigua
      • Grus miocaenicus (Middle Miocene of Credinţa, Romania) - may be synonym of Palaelodus ambiguus
      • Grus afghana (Late Miocene of Molayan, Afghanistan)
      • Grus sp. 1 (Late Miocene of Love Bone Bed, USA)
      • Grus sp. 2 (Late Miocene of Love Bone Bed, USA)
      • Grus cf. antigone (Late Miocene/Early Pliocene of Lee Creek Mine, USA)
      • Grus nannodes (Late Miocene/Early Pliocene -? Middle Pliocene of Sherman County, USA)
      • Grus sp. (Late Miocene/Early Pliocene of Lee Creek Mine, USA)
      • Grus haydeni (Late Miocene/Early Pliocene - Pleistocene? of WC USA)
      • Grus penteleci (Late Miocene - Early Pliocene of C and SE Europe) - formerly Pliogrus
      • Grus latipes (Shore Hills Late Pleistocene of Bermuda, W Atlantic) - formerly Baeopteryx
      • Grus pagei (Late Pleistocene of Rancho La Brea
      • Grus melitensis (Pleistocene of Malta)
      • Grus bogatshevi
      • Grus cubensis
      • Grus primigenia
  • Messelornithidae - Messel-birds
    • Itardiornis
    • Messelornis
  • Cariamidae - Seriemas
    • Prehistoric species of extant genera
      • Chunga incerta
  • Salmilidae
    • Salmila
  • Bathornithidae
    • Eutreptornis (Uinta Late Eocene of Ouray Agency, USA)
    • Neocathartes (Late Eocene)
    • Palaeogyps (Early Oligocene of WC North America)
    • Bathornithidae gen. nov. (Early - Middle Oligocene of C USA) - formerly Bathornis celeripes and B. cursor
    • Paracrax (Early/Middle Oligocene of Gerry's Ranch, USA - Brule Late Oligocene of South Dakota, USA)
    • Bathornis (Early Oligocene - Early Miocene of C USA)
Reconstruction of the famous "terror bird" Phorusrhacos longissimus.
Reconstruction of the famous "terror bird" Phorusrhacos longissimus.
  • Idiornithidae
    • Idiornis (Middle Eocene of Messel, Germany ?- Quercy Middle Oligocene of Quercy, France)
    • Gypsornis (Montmartre Late Eocene of Montmartre, France)
    • Elaphrocnemus (Quercy Late Eocene ?-Middle Oligocene of Quercy, France)
    • Oblitavis
  • Phorusrhacidae - Terror birds
    • Paleopsilopterus (Middle Paleocene of Itaboraí, Brazil)
    • Andrewsornis (Middle - Late Oligocene of S Argentina)
    • Physornis (Middle - Late Oligocene of Santa Cruz Province, Argentina)
    • Psilopterus (Deseado Middle Oligocene - Arroyo Chasicó Late Miocene of S and E Argentina)
    • Paraphysornis (Tremembé Late Oligocene/Early Miocene of São Paulo State, Brazil)
    • Brontornis (Early - Middle Miocene)
    • Patagornis (Santa Cruz Early - Middle Miocene of Santa Cruz Province, Argentina)
    • Phorusrhacos (Early - Middle Miocene)
    • Andalgalornis (Andalgala Late Miocene - Early Pliocene of N Argentina)
    • Devincenzia (Late Miocene - Early Pliocene of NE Argentina and Arroyo Roman, Uruguay)
    • Procariama (Late Miocene - Early Pliocene of Catamarca Province, Argentina)
    • Mesembriornis (Late Miocene - Late Pliocene of E and NW Argentina)
    • Titanis (Late Pliocene - Early Pleistocene)
  • Otididae - Bustards
    • Gryzaja
    • Prehistoric species of extant genera
      • Chlamydotis affinis

Phoenicopteriformes

  • Placement unresolved
    • Phoeniconotius (Etadunna Late Oligocene/Early Miocene of Lake Pitikanta, Australia)
  • Palaelodidae - Swimming-flamingos
    • Adelalopus (Borgloon Early Oligocene of Hoogbutsel, Belgium)
    • Palaelodus (Middle Oligocene -? Middle Pleistocene)
    • Megapaloelodus (Late Oligocene - Early Pliocene)
  • Phoenicopteridae - Flamingos
    • Elornis (Late Eocene - Early Oligocene)
    • Extant genera with known prehistoric species
      • Phoenicopterus (Middle Oligocene - Recent)

Podicipediformes

  • Podicipedidae - Grebes
    • Pliolymbus (Late Pliocene of WC USA)
    • Miobaptus
    • Thiornis
    • Placement unresolved
      • Podicipedidae gen. et sp. indet. (San Diego Late Pliocene of California) - formerly included in Podiceps parvus
      • Podicipedidae gen. et sp. indet. UMMP 49592, 52261, 51848, 52276, KUVP 4484 (Late Pliocene of WC USA)
      • Podicipedidae gen. et sp. indet. (Glenns Ferry Late Pliocene/Early Pleistocene of Idaho, USA)
    • Prehistoric species of extant genera
      • Podiceps cf. auritus (Early Pliocene of Florida, USA) - formerly P. pisanus, P. howardae and Pliodytes lanquisti
      • Podiceps subparvus (Middle Pliocene of California, USA)
      • Podiceps discors (Late Pliocene of WC USA)
      • Podiceps? sp. (Late Pliocene of WC USA)
      • Podiceps parvus (Late Pleistocene of W North America)
      • Podilymbus majusculus (Late Pliocene of WC USA)
      • Podilymbus wetmorei (Late Pleistocene of Florida, USA)
      • Podiceps dixi
      • Podiceps oligocaenus
      • Aechmophorus elasson (Late Pliocene of W USA)
      • Prehistoric subspecies of extant species
        • Aechmophorus occidentalis lucasi (Late Pleistocene of SW North America)
        • Podilymbus podiceps magnus - may be same as nominate subspecies

Ciconiiformes

The diverse group that includes storks, herons and New World vultures.

  • Placement unresolved
    • "Teratornis" olsoni
  • Ardeidae - Herons
    • Xenerodiops (Early Oligocene of Fayyum, Egypt)
    • Zeltornis (Early Miocene)
    • Ardeagradis
    • Calcardea
    • Proardea
    • Proardeola - possibly same as Proardea
    • Extant genera with known prehistoric species
      • Nycticorax (Early Oligocene - Recent)
        Ardea (Middle Miocene - Recent)
        Egretta (Late Miocene/Early Pliocene - Recent)
        Butorides (Early Pleistocene - Recent)
        Botaurus
  • Scopidae - Hammerkop
    • Prehistoric species of extant genera
      • Scopus xenopus
  • Threskiornithidae - Ibises
    • Rhynchaeites
    • Prehistoric species of extant genera
      • Plegadis paganus (Late Oligocene/Early Miocene of France) - formerly Eudocimus
      • Plegadis gracilis (Late Pliocene of WC USA)
      • Plegadis pharangites (Late Pliocene of WC USA)
      • Theristicus wetmorei
      • Eudocimus leiseyi
      • Eudocimus ?peruvianus
      • Eudocimus sp. (Florida)
  • Teratornithidae - Teratorns
    • Argentavis (Late Miocene)
    • Aiolornis (Early Pliocene - Late Pleistocene)
    • Cathartornis
  • Cathartidae - New World vultures
    • Diatropornis (Late Eocene/Early Oligocene -? Middle Oligocene)
    • Phasmagyps (Early Oligocene)
    • Brasilogyps (Late Oligocene - Early Miocene)
    • Hadrogyps (Middle Miocene)
    • Pliogyps (Late Miocene - Late Pliocene)
    • Perugyps (Late Miocene/Early Pliocene)
    • Dryornis (Early - Late Pliocene) - may belong to modern genus Vultur
    • Aizenogyps (Late Pliocene)
    • Breagyps (Late Pleistocene)
    • Geronogyps (Late Pleistocene)
    • Wingegyps (Late Pleistocene)
    • Parasarcoramphus
    • Placement unresolved
      • Cathartidae gen. et sp. indet. (Late Oligocene of Mongolia)
      • Cathartidae gen. et sp. indet. (Late Miocene/Early Pliocene of Lee Creek Mine, USA)
      • Cathartidae gen. et sp. indet. (Middle Pliocene of Argentina)
      • Cathartidae gen. et sp. indet. (Cuba)
    • Extant genera with known prehistoric (sub)species
      • Sarcoramphus (Middle Pliocene ?- Recent)
        Gymnogyps (Early Pleistocene - Recent)
        Vultur (Pliocene - Recent) - distinctiveness disputed
  • Balaenicipitidae - Shoebills
    • Goliathia (Late Eocene/Early Oligocene of Egypt)
    • Paludavis (Late Miocene of Tunisia and Pakistan)
  • Ciconiidae - Storks
    • Palaeoephippiorhynchus (Early Oligocene of Fayyum, Egypt)
    • Grallavis (Early Miocene of Saint-Gérand-le-Puy, France, and Djebel Zelten, Libya) - may be same as
    • Prociconia (Late Pleistocene of Brazil) - may belong to modern genus Jabiru or Ciconia

Palaeoephippiorhynchus

    • Pelargosteon (Early Pleistocene of Romania)
    • Placement unresolved
      • Ciconiidae gen. et sp. indet. - formerly Cygnus bilinicus (Early Miocene of Břešťany, Czechia)
      • cf. Leptoptilos gen. et sp. indet. - formerly L. siwalicensis (Late Miocene? - Late Pliocene of Siwalik, India)
      • Ciconiidae gen. et sp. indet. (Late Pleistocene of San Josecito Cavern, Mexico) - Ciconia or Mycteria
      • Ciconia stehlini (Early Pleistocene of Hungary)
      • Ciconia nana (Late Pleistocene of Australia) - formerly Xenorhynchus
      • Mycteria milleri (Valentine Middle Miocene of Cherry County, USA) - formerly Dissourodes
      • Mycteria wetmorei (Late Pleistocene of W and SE USA)
      • Ephippiorhynchus pakistanensis (Late Miocene of Pakistan)
      • Leptoptilos richae (Beglia Late Miocene of Bled ed Douarah, Tunisia, and Wadi Moghara, Egypt?)
      • Leptoptilos sp. (Ngorora Late Miocene of Baringo District, Kenya)
      • Leptoptilos falconeri (Early - Late Pliocene of S Asia and E Africa)
      • Leptoptilos cf. falconeri (Early Pliocene of Odessa, Ukraine and Urugus, Ethiopia - Late Pliocene of Koro Toro, Chad and Olduvai, Tanzania) - includes L. pliocenicus, may be the same as L. falconeri
      • Leptoptilos sp. (Late Pliocene of Siwalik, India) - formerly Cryptociconia indica, may be the same as L. falconeri
      • Leptoptilos titan (Notopuro Middle/Late Pleistocene of Watualang, Java)

Pelecaniformes

The group that includes modern pelicans and cormorants.

  • Basal and unresolved forms
    • "Sula" ronzoni (Early Oligocene of Ronzon, Frane) - formerly Mergus
    • ?Anhinga laticeps (Pleistocene)
  • Prophaethontidae
    • Prophaethon (Early Eocene London Clay of Isle of Sheppey, England)
    • Lithoptila (Late Paleocene of Ouled Abdoun Basin, Morocco)
  • Phaethontidae - Tropicbirds
    • Heliadornis
  • Fregatidae - Frigatebirds
    • Limnofregata (Early Eocene)
  • Sulidae - Gannets and boobies
    • Masillastega (Middle Eocene of Messel, Germany)
    • Eostega (Middle/Late Eocene of Cluj-Manastur, Romania)
    • Empheresula (Late Oligocene of Gannat, France - Middle Miocene of Steinheimer Becken, Germany)
    • Microsula (Lower Miocene of Léognan - Grund Middle Miocene of Austria)
    • Sarmatosula (Middle Miocene of Credinţa, Romania)
    • Rhamphastosula (Pisco Early Pliocene of SC Peru)
    • Miosula
    • Palaeosula
    • Placement unresolved
      • Sulidae gen. et sp. indet. (Thalberg Late Oligocene of Germany)
    • Extant genera with known prehistoric species
      • Morus (Early? Miocene - Recent)
      • Sula (Early Miocene - Recent)
  • Phalacrocoracidae - Cormorants and shags
    • Oligocorax (Late Oligocene of WC Europe)
    • Nectornis (Early Miocene of C Europe - Middle Miocene of Bes-Konak, Turkey) - includes Oligocorax miocaenus
    • Valenticarbo
    • Placement unresolved
      • Oligocorax? sp. (Late Oligocene of Enspel, Germany)
    • Prehistoric species of extant genera
      • Phalacrocorax marinavis (Oligocene? of Oregon) - Oligocorax?
      • Phalacrocorax littoralis (Early Miocene of St-Gérand-le-Puy, France) - formerly Oligocorax
      • Phalacrocorax intermedius (Early - Middle Miocene of C Europe) - includes P. praecarbo, Ardea/P. brunhuberi and Botaurites avitus
      • Phalacrocorax macropus (Early Miocene ?-? Pliocene of NW USA)
      • Phalacrocorax ibericus (Late Miocene of Valles de Fuentiduena, Spain)
      • Phalacrocorax lautus (Late Miocene of Golboçica, Moldavia)
      • Phalacrocorax serdicensis (Late Miocene of Hrabarsko, Bulgaria)
      • Phalacrocorax femoralis (Modelo Late Miocene/Early Pliocene of WC North America)
      • Phalacrocorax sp. (Late Miocene/Early Pliocene of Lee Creek Mine, USA)
      • Phalacrocorax longipes (Late Miocene - Early Pliocene of the Ukraine) - formerly Pliocarbo
      • Phalacrocorax goletensis (Early Pliocene of Michoacán, Mexico)
      • Phalacrocorax wetmorei (Bone Valley Early Pliocene of Florida)
      • Phalacrocorax sp. (Bone Valley Early Pliocene of Polk County, USA) - may be P. idahensis
      • Phalacrocorax idahensis (Middle Pliocene ?- Pleistocene of Idaho)
      • Phalacrocorax destefani (Late Pliocene of Italy)
      • Phalacrocorax filyawi (Pinecrest Late Pliocene of Florida, USA) - may be P. idahensis
      • Phalacrocorax macer (Late Pliocene of Idaho, USA)
      • Phalacrocorax rogersi (Late Pliocene of Santa Barbara, USA)
      • Phalacrocorax kennelli (San Diego Pliocene of California)
      • Phalacrocorax sp. "Wildhalm" (Pliocene)
      • Phalacrocorax pampeanus (Pleistocene of Argentina)
      • Phalacrocorax gregorii (Pleistocene of Australia)
      • Phalacrocorax vetustus (Pleistocene of Australia)
      • Phalacrocorax anatolicus
      • Phalacrocorax chapalensis
      • Phalacrocorax kumeyaay
      • Phalacrocorax leptopus
      • Phalacrocorax mongoliensis
      • Phalacrocorax reliquus
      • Phalacrocorax sp. (Sarasota County, Florida) - may be P. idahensis
  • Plotopteridae - Diving-"boobies"
    • Phocavis
    • Tonsala
    • Copepteryx
    • Plotopterum
  • Protoplotidae
    • Protoplotus (Middle Eocene of Sumatra)
  • Anhingidae - Darters
    • Meganhinga (Early Miocene)
    • Macranhinga (Late Miocene -? Early Pliocene)
    • Giganhinga (Late Pliocene/Early Pleistocene)
    • Extant genera with known prehistoric species
  • Pelagornithidae - Pseudotooth Birds
    • Gigantornis (Middle Eocene of Nigeria)
    • Osteodontornis (Early Oligocene - Pliocene)
    • Pelagornis (Middle Miocene of France)
    • Odontopteryx
    • Caspiodontornis
    • Cyphornis (Eocene of Vancouver, Canada)
    • Dasornis
    • Palaeochenoides
    • Pseudodontornis
    • Tympanoneisiotes
  • Pelecanidae - Pelicans
    • Protopelicanus
    • Miopelecanus
    • Extant genera with known prehistoric species
      • Pelecanus (Late Pliocene - Recent)

Procellariiformes

The group that includes modern albatrosses, petrels and storm-petrels.

  • Diomedeoididae
    • Rupelornis (Early Oligocene of Belgium)
    • Diomedeoides (Early Oligocene ?-Early Miocene of C Europe and Iran) - includes Frigidafrons, may be synonym of Rupelornis
  • Diomedeidae - Albatrosses
    • Murunkus (Middle Eocene)
    • Plotornis (Middle Miocene)
    • Placement unresolved
      • Diomedeidae gen. et sp. indet. (Late Oligocene of South Carolina)
    • Extant genera with known prehistoric species
      • Diomedea (Middle Miocene - Recent)
        Phoebastria (Middle Miocene - Recent)
        Thalassarche (Late Miocene - Recent)
  • Hydrobatidae - Storm-petrels
    • Prehistoric species of extant genera
      • Oceanodroma hubbsi (Capistrano Middle/Late Miocene of Orange County, USA)
      • Oceanodroma sp.
      • Pelagodroma sp. 1
      • Pelagodroma sp. 2
  • Procellariidae - Petrels
    • Argyrodyptes (Patagonia Early Miocene of Patagonia, Argentina)
    • Pterodromoides
    • Extant genera with known prehistoric species
      • Puffinus (Early Oligocene - Recent)
        Fulmarus (Middle Miocene - Recent)
        Calonectris
        Pachyptila
        Procellaria
  • Pelecanoididae - Diving-petrels
    • Extant genera with known prehistoric species
      • Pelecanoides (Early Pliocene - Recent)

Gaviiformes

  • Gaviidae - Loons
    • Colymboides (Late Eocene - Early Miocene) - includes Hydrornis
    • Extant genera with known prehistoric species
      • Gavia (Early Miocene - Recent)

Sphenisciformes

  • Unresolved and basal forms
    • Waimanu (Early - Late Palaeocene)
    • Sphenisciformes gen. et sp. indet. CADIC P 21 (Leticia Middle Eocene of Punta Torcida, Argentina)
  • Spheniscidae - Penguins
    • †Crossvallia (Cross Valley Late Paleocene of Seymour Island, Antarctica)
      †Anthropornis (Middle Eocene ?- Early Oligocene of Seymour Island, Antarctica)
      †Archaeospheniscus (Middle/Late Eocene - Late Oligocene)
      †Delphinornis (Middle/Late Eocene ?- Early Oligocene of Seymour Island, Antarctica)
      †Palaeeudyptes (Middle/Late Eocene - Late Oligocene)
      †Pachydyptes (Late Eocene)
      †Marambiornis (Late Eocene -? Early Oligocene of Seymour Island, Antarctica)
      †Mesetaornis (Late Eocene -? Early Oligocene of Seymour Island, Antarctica)
      †Tonniornis (Late Eocene -? Early Oligocene of Seymour Island, Antarctica)
      †Wimanornis (Late Eocene -? Early Oligocene of Seymour Island, Antarctica)
      †Arthrodytes (San Julian Late Eocene/Early Oligocene - Patagonia Early Miocene of Patagonia, Argentina)
      †Duntroonornis (Late Oligocene of Otago, New Zealand)
      †Korora (Late Oligocene of S Canterbury, New Zealand)
      †Platydyptes (Late Oligocene of New Zealand)
      †Chubutodyptes (Early Miocene)
      †Eretiscus (Patagonia Early Miocene of Patagonia, Argentina)
      †Palaeospheniscus (Early Miocene)
      †Paraptenodytes (Early Miocene)
      †Anthropodyptes (Middle Miocene)
      †Pseudaptenodytes (Late Miocene/Early Pliocene)
      †Dege
      †Insuza
      †Marplesornis
      †Nucleornis
    • Extant genera with known prehistoric species
      • Pygoscelis (Middle/Late Miocene - Recent)
        Spheniscus (Late Miocene/Early Pliocene - Recent)
        Aptenodytes (Early Pliocene - Recent)
    • Placement unresolved
      • Spheniscidae gen. et sp. indet (Late Oligocene/Early Miocene of Hakataramea, New Zealand)
      • Spheniscidae gen. et sp. indet (Pisco Middle Miocene of SC Peru) - may be same as Pygoscelis small sp.

Pteroclidiformes

  • Pteroclididae - Sandgrouse
    • Archaeoganga
    • Leptoganga

Columbiformes

  • Columbidae - Doves and pigeons
    • Gerandia (Early Miocene)
    • Extant genera with known prehistoric (sub)species
      • Patagioenas (Early Pliocene - Recent)
      • Columba

Psittaciformes

  • Unresolved and basal forms
    • Psittacopes
  • Pseudasturidae
    • Pseudastur
    • Pseudasturides
  • Psittacidae - Parrots, parakeets and lories
    • Archaeopsittacus (Late Oligocene/Early Miocene of France)
    • Xenopsitta (Early Miocene of Czechia)
    • Bavaripsitta (Middle Miocene of Steinberg, Germany)
    • "Pararallus dispar" (Middle Miocene of France) - includes "Psittacus" lartetianus
    • Precursor (Early Eocene of England)
    • Serundaptus
    • Quercypsitta
    • Pulchrapollia
    • Extant and recently extinct genera with known prehistoric species
      • Conuropsis (Early? Miocene - Holocene) - may be subspecies of C. carolinensis or belong to different genus
        Rhynchopsitta (Late Pleistocene - Recent)
    • Additional prehistoric species of extant genera
      • Aratinga roosevelti

Cuculiformes

Cuckoos, turacos and allies.

  • Opisthocomidae - Hoatzins
    • Hoazinoides (Miocene of upper Magdalena Valley, Colombia)
    • Hoatzi - may be same as Foro
  • Musophagidae - Turacos
    • Placement unresolved
      • Musophagidae gen. et sp. indet. (Egypt)
    • Prehistoric species of extant genera
      • Musophaga africanus - formerly Apopempsis
      • Musophaga meini - formerly Apopempsis
  • Cuculidae - Cuckoos
    • Dynamopterus
    • Cursoricoccyx
    • Neococcyx
    • Placement unresolved
      • Cuculidae gen. et sp. indet.

Falconiformes

Birds of prey

  • Unresolved and basal forms
    • Masillaraptor (Middle Eocene of Messel, Germany) - basal?
  • Horusornithidae
    • Horusornis
  • Pandionidae - Ospreys
    • Extant genera with known prehistoric species
      • Pandion (Early Oligocene - Recent)
  • Sagittariidae - Secretary Birds
    • Pelargopappus (Late Eocene/Early Oligocene - Late Oligocene/Early Miocene of France) - formerly Amphiserpentarius/Amynoptilon/Pelargopsis
  • Accipitridae - Hawks
    • Milvoides (Late Eocene of England)
    • Aquilavus (Late Eocene/Early Oligocene of France)
    • Palaeocircus (Late Eocene/Early Oligocene of France)
    • Palaeastur (Agate Fossil Beds Early Miocene of Sioux County, USA)
    • Pengana (Early Miocene of Riversleigh, Australia)
    • Promilio (Agate Fossil Beds Early Miocene of Sioux County, USA)
    • Proictinia (Early - Late Miocene/Early Pliocene of C and SE USA)
    • Palaeoborus (Miocene)
    • Neophrontops (Early Pliocene - Late Pleistocene)
    • Amplibuteo (Late Pliocene of Peru - Late Pleistocene of S North America and Cuba) - may belong to extant genus Harpyhaliaetus
    • Neogyps
    • Palaeohierax
    • Wetmoregyps - formerly Morphnus daggetti
    • Placement unresolved
      • Accipitridae gen. et sp. indet. AMNH 7434 (Huerfano Early Eocene of Huerfano County, USA)
      • Accipitridae gen. et sp. indet. (Egypt)
      • "Aquila" danana (Miocene) - formerly Geranoaetus or Buteo
    • Extant genera with known prehistoric species
      • Haliaeetus (Early Oligocene - Recent)
      • Buteo (Middle Oligocene - Recent)
    • Additional prehistoric species of extant genera
      • Aquila bivia
      • Aquila sodalis
      • Buteogallus enectus (Sheep Creek Middle Miocene of Sioux County, USA)
      • Buteogallus fragilis (Rancho La Brea Late Pleistocene of California, USA) - formerly Geranoaetus
      • Buteogallus milleri (Late Pleistocene of New Mexico, USA)
      • Gyps melitensis
      • Neophron sp. (Late Miocene/Early Pliocene of Lee Creek Mine, USA)
      • Neophron vetustus
      • Neophron dakotensis
      • Neophron slaughteri
      • Neophron vallecitoensis
      • Neophron ricardoensis
      • Spizaetus grinnelli (Rancho La Brea Late Pleistocene of California, USA) - formerly Geranoaetus
      • Spizaetus pliogryps
  • Falconidae - Falcons
    • Parvulivenator (Early Eocene of England)
    • Stintonornis (Early Eocene of England)
    • Badiostes (Santa Cruz Early Miocene of Patagonia, Argentina)
    • Pediohierax (Middle Miocene of Nebraska, USA) - formerly Falco ramenta
    • Placement unresolved
      • Falconidae gen. et sp. indet. (Late Miocene of Neuquén, Argentina)
    • Prehistoric species of extant genera
      • ?Falco sp. (Late Miocene of Idaho)
      • Falco sp. (Early Pliocene of Kansas)
      • Falco medius (Late Miocene of Cherevichnyi, Ukraine)
      • Falco antiquus
      • Milvago alexandri
      • Milvago readei
      • ?Milvago sp. (Jamaica, West Indies)
      • Milvago sp. (Cuba, West Indies)
      • Prehistoric subspecies of extant species
        • Falco tinnunculus atavus
          Polyborus plancus grinnelli (Late Pleistocene of California)
          Polyborus plancus prelutosus (Late Pleistocene of Mexico)

Caprimulgiformes

Nightjars, potoos and allies.

  • Placement unresolved
    • Paraprefica - Steatornithidae or Nyctibiidae
  • Steatornithidae - Oilbirds
    • Prefica
    • Prehistoric species of extant genera
      • Steatornis sp.
  • Podargidae - Frogmouths
    • Masillapodargus
    • Quercypodargus
  • Nyctibiidae - Potoos
    • Euronyctibius
  • Caprimulgidae - Nightjars
    • Ventivorus

Apodiformes

Swifts, hummingbirds and owlet-nightjars.

  • Basal and unresolved forms
    • Primapus (Early Eocene) - aegialornithid or apodid
    • Parargornis (Middle Eocene) - jungornithid, trochilid, basal as Argornis?
    • Argornis (Late Eocene) - basal to Jungornithidae and Trochilidae
    • Cypselavus (Late Eocene - Early Oligocene) - aegialornithid or hemiprocnid
  • Aegothelidae - Owlet-nightjars
    • Quipollornis (Early/Middle Miocene)
  • Aegialornithidae
    • Aegialornis (Early Eocene of North America? - Late Eocene of C Europe)
  • Jungornithidae
    • Jungornis (Early Oligocene of N Caucasus, Russia)
    • Palescyvus
    • Laputavis
  • Trochilidae - Hummingbirds
    • Eurotrochilus (Early Oligocene of Frauenweiler, Germany)
    • Placement unresolved
      • Trochilidae sp. et gen. indet. (Bahamas, West Indies)
      • Trochilidae sp. et gen. indet. (Brazil)
  • Apodidae - Swifts
    • Scaniacypselus (Early - Middle Eocene)
    • Procypseloides (Late Eocene/Early Oligocene - Early Miocene)
    • Extant genera with known prehistoric (sub)species
      • Apus
      • Tachornis

Coliiformes

Mousebirds and relatives

  • Unresolved and basal forms
    • Chascacocolius (Late Paleocene ?- Early Eocene) - basal? sandcoleid?
    • Eocolius (Early Eocene) - sandcoleid or coliid
    • Selmes (Middle Eocene ?-Late Oligocene) - coliid?, possibly synonym of Primocolius
    • "Necrornis" palustris (Miocene) - coliid (genus Colius)?
    • "Picus" archiaci (Miocene) - coliid? genus Limnatornis?
    • "Picus" consobrinus (Miocene) - coliid?
    • Eobucco - sandcoleid?
    • Uintornis - sandcoleid?
    • Limnatornis
  • Sandcoleidae
    • Sandcoleus
    • Anneavis
    • Eoglaucidium
  • Coliidae - Mousebirds
    • Primocolius (Late Eocene/Oligocene)
    • Oligocolius (Early Oligocene)
    • Masillacolius (Middle Eocene)
    • Prehistoric species of extant genera
      • Colius hendeyi (Early Pliocene)

Strigiformes

Owls and barn owls

  • Unresolved and basal forms
    • Ogygoptynx (Early Paleocene of Colorado, USA) - basal
    • Berruornis - basal
    • †Strigiformes gen. et spp. indet. (Early Oligocene of Wyoming, USA)
  • Palaeoglaucidae
    • Palaeoglaux
  • Protostrigidae
    • Protostrix (Middle - Late Eocene of W USA)
    • Eostrix (Early Eocene of WC USA and England - Middle Eocene of WC USA)
  • Sophiornithidae
    • Sophiornis
    • Strigogyps - includes Aenigmavis and Ameghinornis
  • Strigidae - Owls
    • Placement unresolved
      • "Asio" henrici (Late Eocene/Early Oligocene of France) - previously Otus
      • "Otus" wintershofensis (Early/Middle Miocene of Wintershof West, Germany)
      • "Strix" brevis (Early/Middle Miocene of Wintershof West, Germany)
    • Prehistoric species of extant genera
      • Strix collongensis (Early Miocene of France)
      • ?Strix dakota (Early Miocene of South Dakota, USA)
      • Strix sp. (Late Miocene of Nebraska, USA)
      • ?Strix perpasta (Late Miocene - Early Pliocene of Gargano Peninsula, Italy) - possibly same as Bubo zeylonensis lamarmorae
      • Strix brea (Late Pleistocene of SW North America)
      • Strix sp. (Late Pleistocene of Ladds, USA)
      • Strix intermedia
      • Asio brevipes (Glenns Ferry Late Pliocene of Hagerman, USA)
      • Asio priscus (Late Pliocene of Santa Rosa Island, USA)
      • Athene megalopeza (Rexroad Late Pliocene of WC USA)
      • Athene trinacriae
      • Athene cf. cunicularia (Barbuda, West Indies)
      • Athene cf. cunicularia (Cayman Islands, West Indies)
      • Athene cf. cunicularia (Jamaica, West Indies)
      • Athene cf. cunicularia (Mona Island, West Indies)
      • Athene cf. cunicularia (Puerto Rico, West Indies)
      • Bubo sp. (Late Pleistocene of San Josecito Cavern, Mexico)
    • Geranopterus (Late Eocene) - basal
  • Eocoraciidae
    • Eocoracias
  • Primobucconidae
    • Primobucco
  • Todidae - Todies
    • Palaeotodus
  • Motmotidae - Motmots
    • Protornis
    • Placement unresolved
      • Momotidae gen. et sp. indet. (Late Miocene of Alachua County, USA)
  • Messelirrisoridae
    • Messelirrisor (Middle Eocene of Messel, Germany)
  • Bucerotidae - Hornbills
    • Extant genera with known prehistoric species
      • Bucorvus

Trogoniformes

  • Trogonidae - Trogons
    • Septentrogon (Fur Late Paleocene/Early Eocene of Ejerslev, Denmark)
    • Primotrogon (Middle Eocene of Messel, Germany? - Early Oligocene of France)
    • Paratrogon (Early Miocene of France)
    • Placement unresolved
      • Trogonidae gen. et sp. indet. 1 (NW Europe)
      • Trogonidae gen. et sp. indet. 2 (NW Europe)

Piciformes

  • Placement unresolved
    • †Piciformes gen. et sp. indet. IRScNB Av 65 (Early Oligocene)
    • Rupelramphastoides (Early Oligocene) - ramphastid?
    • †Piciformes gen. et sp. indet. SMF Av 429 (Late Oligocene)
    • Capitonides (Early - Middle Miocene) - ramphastid or capitonid
  • Primoscenidae
    • Primoscens
    • Primozygodactylus
  • Miopiconidae
    • Miopico
  • Picidae - Woodpeckers
    • Palaeopicus (Late Oligocene)
    • Palaeonerpes (Early Pliocene)
    • Pliopicus (Early Pliocene)
    • Placement unresolved
      • Picidae gen. et sp. indet. (Middle Miocene)
      • Picidae gen. et sp. indet. (Late Miocene)
      • cf. Colaptes DMNH 1262 (Early Pliocene of Ainsworth, USA)
    • Extant genera with known prehistoric (sub)species
      • Campephilus (Late Pleistocene - Recent)
        Colaptes
        Dendrocopos
      • Additional prehistoric subspecies of extant species
        • Melanerpes superciliaris ssp. (Little Exuma, Bahamas)
          Melanerpes superciliaris ssp. (New Providence, Bahamas)

Passeriformes

  • Placement unresolved
    • Wieslochia (Early Oligocene of Frauenweiler, Germany)
    • †Passeriformes gen. et sp. indet. SMF Av 504 (Late Oligocene of Luberon, France)
    • †Passeriformes gen. et sp. indet. (Late Oligocene of France)
    • †Passeriformes gen. et sp. indet. MACN-SC-1411 (Pinturas Early/Middle Miocene of Santa Cruz Province, Argentina)
    • †Passeriformes gen. et sp. indet. SMN Av 487-496 (Middle Miocene of Petersbuch, Germany)
    • †Passeriformes gen. et sp. indet. SMNS 86822,86825-86826
    • "Palaeostruthus" eurius (Pliocene of Florida)
  • Eurylaimidae - Broadbills
    • Placement unresolved
      • Eurylaimidae gen. et sp. indet. (Early Miocene of Wintershof, Germany)
  • Palaeoscinidae
    • Paleoscinis
  • Furnariidae - Ovenbirds
    • Prehistoric species of extant genera
      • Pseudoseisura cursor (Ensenada Early/Middle Pleistocene of Anchorena, Argentina)
  • Orthonychidae - Logrunners
    • Extant genera with known prehistoric species
      • Orthonyx (Middle/Late Miocene - Recent)
  • Corvidae - Crows, Ravens, Jays and Magpies
    • Henocitta (Arredondo Early Pleistocene of Williston, USA)
    • Protocitta (Early Pleistocene of Reddick, USA)
    • Miocitta
    • Miocorvus
    • Extant genera with known prehistoric (sub)species
      • Corvus (Late Miocene - Recent)
        Pica
        Pyrrhocorax
    • Placement unresolved
      • Corvidae gen. et sp. indet. (Sicily)
  • Laniidae - Shrikes
    • Prehistoric species of extant genera
      • Lanius miocaenus (Early Miocene of Langy, France)
  • Motacillidae - Wagtails
    • Prehistoric species of extant genera
      • Motacilla humata
      • Motacilla major
  • Fringillidae - Finches
    • Prehistoric species of extant genera
      • Loxia patevi
      • Coccothraustes balcanicus
      • Coccothraustes simeonovi
  • Cardinalidae - Cardinals
    • Placement unresolved
      • ?Passerina sp. (Early Pliocene of Yepómera, Mexico)
  • Emberizidae - Buntings
    • Palaeospiza
    • Prehistoric species of extant genera
      • Ammodramus hatcheri (Late Miocene of Kansas, USA) - formerly Palaeospiza or Palaeostruthus
      • Pipilo angelensis (Pleistocene of Rancho La Brea, USA)
  • Regulidae - Kinglets
    • Prehistoric species of extant genera
      • Regulus balcanicus
  • Icteridae - Grackles
    • Pandanaris (Pleistocene of Rancho La Brea, USA)
    • Pyelorhamphus (Shelter Cave, USA)
    • Prehistoric species of extant genera
      • Euphagus magnirostris (Late Pleistocene of Rancho La Brea, California)

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This guide is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia.


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