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Parulidae

Birds Guide

Parulidae

Dendroica | Seiurus | Vermivora

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New World warblers
Common YellowthroatGeolyphis trichas
 
Common Yellowthroat
Geolyphis trichas
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
 
Phylum: Chordata
 
Class: Aves
 
Order: Passeriformes
 
Family: Parulidae
Wetmore et al, 1947
Genera
Vermivora
Parula
Dendroica
Catharopeza
Mniotilta
Setophaga
Protonotaria
Helmitheros
Limnothlypis
Seiurus
Oporornis
Geothlypis
Microligea
Teretistris
Leucopeza
Wilsonia
Cardellina
Ergaticus
Myioborus
Euthlypis
Basileuterus
Zeledonia
Icteria
Granatellus
Xenoligea

The New World warblers or wood-warblers are a group of small often colourful passerine birds restricted to the New World. They are not related to the Old World warblers (Sylviidae) or the Australian warblers.

Most are arboreal, but some, like the Ovenbird and the two waterthrushes, are more terrestrial. Most members of this family are insectivores.

It is likely that this group originated in northern Central America, which remains with the greatest diversity and numbers of species. From thence they spread north during the interglacial periods, mainly as migrants, returning to the ancestral region in winter. Two genera, Myioborus and Basileuterus seem to have colonised South America early, perhaps before the two continents were linked, and provide most of the resident warbler species of that region.

Many migratory species, particularly those breeding further north, have distinctive male plumage at least in the breeding seaon, since males need to reclaim territory and advertise for mates each year. This tendency is particularly marked in the large genus Dendroica. In contrast, resident tropical species, which pair for life, show little if any sexual dimorphism.

There are of course exceptions. The Seiurus waterthrushes and Ovenbird are strongly migratory, but have identical male and female plumage, whereas the mainly tropical and sedentary yellowthroats are dimorphic.

The Granatellus chats also show sexual dimorphism, but due to recent genetic work may soon be moved into the family Cardinalidae (New World buntings and cardinals).

The migratory species tend to lay larger clutches of eggs, typically up to six, since the hazards of their journeys mean that many individuals will have only one chance to breed. In contrast, two eggs is typical for many tropical species, since the chicks can be provided with better care, and the adults are likely to have further opportunities for reproduction.

The scientific name for the family, Parulidae, originates from the fact that Linnaeus in 1758 named the Northern Parula as a tit, Parus americanus, and, as taxonomy developed, the genus name was modified first to Parulus and then the current Parula. The family name, of course, derives from that genus.

Contents

Taxonomic issues

There are a number of issues in the taxonomy of the Parulidae.

  • Sibley and Ahlquist have suggested that the family be merged with the Emberizidae as a subfamily Parulinae. The Olive Warbler, however would be removed from the group as the only member of the separate subfamily Peucedramimae.
  • The New World warblers are closely related to the tanagers, and some species like the conebills Conirostrum and the Bananaquit have been placed into either group by different authorities. Currently, the conebills are normally placed in Thraupidae and the Bananaquit in its own family.
  • Green-tailed Warbler, Yellow-breasted Chat, the Granatellus chats and White-winged Warbler, are other species where there have been questions as to whether they should be considered as warblers of tanagers.
  • The Pardusco, Nephelornis oneilli is also of uncertain affinities

Species list in taxonomic order

Family: Parulidae

  • Bachman's Warbler, Vermivora bachmanii
    Blue-winged Warbler, Vermivora pinus
    Golden-winged Warbler, Vermivora chrysoptera
    Tennessee Warbler, Vermivora peregrina
    Orange-crowned Warbler, Vermivora celata
    Nashville Warbler, Vermivora ruficapilla
    Virginia's Warbler, Vermivora virginiae
    Colima Warbler, Vermivora crissalis
    Lucy's Warbler, Vermivora luciae
    Flame-throated Warbler, Parula gutturalis
    Crescent-chested Warbler, Parula superciliosa
    Northern Parula, Parula americana
    Tropical Parula, Parula pitiayumi
    Yellow Warbler, Dendroica petechia
    Chestnut-sided Warbler, Dendroica pensylvanica
    Magnolia Warbler, Dendroica magnolia
    Cape May Warbler, Dendroica tigrina
    Black-throated Blue Warbler, Dendroica caerulescens
    Yellow-rumped Warbler, Dendroica coronata
    Black-throated Gray Warbler, Dendroica nigrescens
    Golden-cheeked Warbler, Dendroica chrysoparia
    Black-throated Green Warbler, Dendroica virens
    Townsend's Warbler, Dendroica townsendi
    Hermit Warbler, Dendroica occidentalis
    Blackburnian Warbler, Dendroica fusca
    Yellow-throated Warbler, Dendroica dominica
    Olive-capped Warbler, Dendroica pityophila
    Grace's Warbler, Dendroica graciae
    Adelaide's Warbler, Dendroica adelaidae
    Barbuda Warbler, Dendroica subita
    St. Lucia Warbler, Dendroica delicata
    Pine Warbler, Dendroica pinus
    Kirtland's Warbler, Dendroica kirtlandii
    Prairie Warbler, Dendroica discolor
    Vitelline Warbler, Dendroica vitellina
    Palm Warbler, Dendroica palmarum
    Bay-breasted Warbler, Dendroica castanea
    Blackpoll Warbler, Dendroica striata
    Cerulean Warbler, Dendroica cerulea
    Plumbeous Warbler, Dendroica plumbea
    Arrow-headed Warbler, Dendroica pharetra
    Elfin-woods Warbler, Dendroica angelae
    Whistling Warbler, Catharopeza bishopi
    Black-and-white Warbler, Mniotilta varia
    American Redstart, Setophaga ruticilla
    Prothonotary Warbler, Protonotaria citrea
    Worm-eating Warbler, Helmitheros vermivorus
    Swainson's Warbler, Limnothlypis swainsonii
    Ovenbird, Seiurus aurocapillus
    Northern Waterthrush, Seiurus noveboracensis
    Louisiana Waterthrush, Seiurus motacilla
    Kentucky Warbler, Oporornis formosus
    Connecticut Warbler, Oporornis agilis
    Mourning Warbler, Oporornis philadelphia
    MacGillivray's Warbler, Oporornis tolmiei
    Common Yellowthroat, Geothlypis trichas
    Belding's Yellowthroat, Geothlypis beldingi
    Altamira Yellowthroat, Geothlypis flavovelata
    Bahama Yellowthroat, Geothlypis rostrata
    Olive-crowned Yellowthroat, Geothlypis semiflava
    Black-polled Yellowthroat, Geothlypis speciosa
    Masked Yellowthroat, Geothlypis aequinoctialis
    Gray-crowned Yellowthroat, Geothlypis poliocephala
    Hooded Yellowthroat, Geothlypis nelsoni
    Green-tailed Warbler, Microligea palustris
    Yellow-headed Warbler, Teretistris fernandinae
    Oriente Warbler, Teretistris fornsi
    Semper's Warbler, Leucopeza semperi
    Hooded Warbler, Wilsonia citrina
    Wilson's Warbler, Wilsonia pusilla
    Canada Warbler, Wilsonia canadensis
    Red-faced Warbler, Cardellina rubrifrons
    Red Warbler, Ergaticus ruber
    Pink-headed Warbler, Ergaticus versicolor
    Painted Redstart, Myioborus pictus
    Slate-throated Redstart, Myioborus miniatus
    Tepui Redstart, Myioborus castaneocapillus
    Brown-capped Redstart, Myioborus brunniceps
    Yellow-faced Redstart, Myioborus pariae
    White-faced Redstart, Myioborus albifacies
    Saffron-breasted Redstart, Myioborus cardonai
    Collared Redstart, Myioborus torquatus
    Spectacled Redstart, Myioborus melanocephalus
    Golden-fronted Redstart, Myioborus ornatus
    White-fronted Redstart, Myioborus albifrons
    Yellow-crowned Redstart, Myioborus flavivertex

The members of Myioborus are also often, more accurately, named as whitestarts, as they have conspicuous white, not red, feathers on the tail sides.

  • Fan-tailed Warbler, Euthlypis lachrymosa
    Gray-and-gold Warbler, Basileuterus fraseri
    Two-banded Warbler, Basileuterus bivittatus
    Golden-bellied Warbler, Basileuterus chrysogaster
    Choco Warbler, Basileuterus chlorophrys
    Pale-legged Warbler, Basileuterus signatus
    Citrine Warbler, Basileuterus luteoviridis
    Black-crested Warbler, Basileuterus nigrocristatus
    Gray-headed Warbler, Basileuterus griseiceps
    Santa Marta Warbler, Basileuterus basilicus
    Gray-throated Warbler, Basileuterus cinereicollis
    White-lored Warbler, Basileuterus conspicillatus
    Russet-crowned Warbler, Basileuterus coronatus
    Golden-crowned Warbler, Basileuterus culicivorus
    Three-banded Warbler, Basileuterus trifasciatus
    White-bellied Warbler, Basileuterus hypoleucus
    Rufous-capped Warbler, Basileuterus rufifrons
    Golden-browed Warbler, Basileuterus belli
    Black-cheeked Warbler, Basileuterus melanogenys
    Pirre Warbler, Basileuterus ignotus
    Three-striped Warbler, Basileuterus tristriatus
    White-rimmed Warbler, Basileuterus leucoblepharus
    White-striped Warbler, Basileuterus leucophrys
    Flavescent Warbler, Basileuterus flaveolus
    Buff-rumped Warbler, Basileuterus fulvicauda
    Neotropical River Warbler, Basileuterus rivularis
    Wrenthrush, Zeledonia coronata
    Yellow-breasted Chat, Icteria virens
    Red-breasted Chat, Granatellus venustus
    Gray-throated Chat, Granatellus sallaei
    Rose-breasted Chat, Granatellus pelzelni
    White-winged Warbler, Xenoligea montana

References

  • Curson, Quinn and Beadle, New World Warblers ISBN 0-7136-3932-6

External links


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