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Shearwaters

Birds Guide

Shearwaters

From Wikipedia the free encyclopedia, by MultiMedia

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Shearwaters
Audubon's Shearwater chick
 
Audubon's Shearwater chick
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
 
Phylum: Chordata
 
Class: Aves
 
Order: Procellariiformes
 
Family: Procellariidae
 
Genera
Procellaria
Calonectris
Puffinus

Shearwaters are medium-sized long-winged seabirds. There are more than 25 species of shearwaters, four large species in the genus Procellaria, three large species in the genus Calonectris, and 19 mostly smaller species in the genus Puffinus. Those in Procellaria are usually called "petrel", though they are thought to be more closely to the shearwaters than to the other petrels.

These birds are most common in temperate and cold waters. They are pelagic outside the breeding season.

These tubenose birds fly with stiff wings, and use a “shearing” flight technique to move across wave fronts with the minimum of active flight. Some small species, like Manx Shearwater are cruciform in flight, with their long wing held directly out from their bodies.

Many are long-distance migrants, perhaps most spectacularly Sooty Shearwaters, which cover distances in excess of 14,000 km from their breeding colony on the Falkland Islands (52°S 60°W) north to 65°-70°N in the North Atlantic Ocean off north Norway. Short-tailed Shearwaters perform an even longer "figure of 8" loop migration in the Pacific Ocean from Tasmania to as far north as the Arctic Ocean off northwest Alaska.

They are also extraordinarily long-lived. A Manx Shearwater breeding on Copeland Island, Northern Ireland, is currently (2003/2004) the oldest known wild bird in the world: ringed as an adult (at least 5 years old) in July 1953, it was retrapped in July 2003, at least 55 years old. Manx Shearwaters migrate over 10,000 km to South America in winter, using waters off southern Brazil and Argentina, so this bird has covered a minimum of 1,000,000 km on migration alone.

Shearwaters come to islands and coastal cliffs only to breed. They are nocturnal at the colonial breeding sites, preferring moonless nights. This is to minimise predation. They nest in burrows and often give eerie contact calls on their nighttime visits. They lay a single white egg.

They feed on fish, squid and similar oceanic food. Some will follow fishing boats to take scraps, notably Sooty Shearwater; these species also commonly follow whales to feed on fish disturbed by them.

Shearwaters are part of the family Procellariidae, which also includes fulmars, prions and petrels.

The Sibley-Ahlquist taxonomy gives a radically different scientific arrangement for this group based on DNA studies.

List of species

  • Genus Procellaria
    • Grey Petrel, P. cinerea
      White-chinned Petrel, P. aequinoctialis
      Black Petrel, P. parkinsoni
      Westland Petrel, P. westlandica
  • Genus Calonectris
    • Streaked Shearwater, C. leucomelas
      Cory's Shearwater, C. diomedea
      Cape Verde Shearwater, C. edwardsii
  • Genus Puffinus
    • Wedge-tailed Shearwater, P. pacificus
      Buller's Shearwater, P. bulleri
      Flesh-footed Shearwater, P. carneipes
      Pink-footed shearwater, P. creatopus
      Great Shearwater, P. gravis
      Sooty Shearwater, P. griseus
      Short-tailed Shearwater or Mutton bird, P. tenuirostris
      Heinroth's Shearwater, P. heinrothi
      Christmas Shearwater, P. nativatis
      Fluttering Shearwater, P. gavia
      Hutton's Shearwater, P. huttoni
      Manx Shearwater, P. puffinus
      Yelkouan Shearwater, P. yelkouan
      Balearic Shearwater, P. mauretanicus
      Black-vented Shearwater, P. opisthomelas
      Townsend's Shearwater, P. auriculatus
      Hawaiian Shearwater, P. newelli
      Audubon's Shearwater, P. lherminieri
      North Atlantic Little Shearwater P. baroli
      Little Shearwater, P. assimilis

External links


Home | Up | Albatrosses | Gannets | Gulls | Haematopodidae | Hydrobatidae | Penguins | Pterodroma | Shearwaters | Skuas | Storm-petrels | Terns

Birds Guide, made by MultiMedia | Free content and software

This guide is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia.


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